GPD Finland 2017

28.06.2017

Sessions
Opening Ceremony
16:00
16:30
17:00
17:30
18:00
Opening Ceremony
Opening Ceremony
Opening Ceremony
28.06.2017

29.06.2017

Sessions
Facade Engineering
Glass & Sustainability; Do's and Don't of Building Facades
Quality Management
Research & Development
Structural Glass Applications
Tempering /Preprocessing
Locations
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 6
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
Facade Engineering
Facade Engineering
Facade Engineering
Towards a More Consistent Design of Laminated Glass
Stage 2

Global glass design standards vary significantly in their treatment of laminated glass. This is especially true with respect to the design of laminated glass to resist loads of different durations. Because the method of accounting for interlayer shear transfer differs across standards – from no transfer in DIN 18008, to fixed transfer coefficients in prEN 13474-3, to calculated values in ASTM E1300 – not only does the glass strength vary from standard to standard, but so does the structural system itself. This can lead to sometimes drastically different results for identical systems when calculated according to different standards. This paper therefore proposes a more rational method for laminated glass design that takes into account the load duration on both the shear transfer coefficient and the glass strength. It is proposed to use utilization rates for each of the individual loads. In this way each load is resisted by a glazing laminate with the appropriate resistance and strength, and the total utilization is a summation of the individual loads according to the appropriate partial load factors. Design examples from each current standard are included to illustrate the differences across codes and these are compared to the methodology proposed in this paper.

Verification of Insulating Glass Units in Modern CW Facades
Stage 2

ASTM E1300 is the main US standard for determining the load resistance of glass in buildings. The safety concept is based on a “Failure Prediction Model”. Normally verification of glass is done against wind loads and for rectangular units only. In modern Curtain Walling facades irregular shapes and the additional impact of linear or concentrated loads on the glass units are demands not yet covered by FPM of ASTM E1300. For proper verification and evaluation of various influences use of an “Allowable Stress Design” is advisable. Relevant load case combinations are mentioned in IBC and ASCE. But just for typical loads within the building sector. The structural analysis of IGUs requires taking into account probable interaction of internal and external loads. This paper shows an approach how to combine loads with different load durations based on the safety concept of ASTM E 1300 and how to combine load types which are not explicitly mentioned in that standard. In conclusion the proposal of appropriate load cases combinations and relevant load durations leading to a reasonable “Allowable Stresses Design” is presented.

Next Generation Simplified Relationship for Structural Silicone Joint Dimensioning
Stage 2

Bonding of glass onto aluminum frames, known as Structural_Silicone_Glazing (SSG), has been applied for more than 40years on facades. Traditionally silicone bite is calculated using a simplified equation assuming a homogenous stress distribution along the sealant bite. Finite element analysis (FEA) allows to describe the accurate local stress distribution within sealant volume. Due to design complexity of façades the requirements to use FEA increased recently. However, there is no standardize methodology to run FEA for evaluation of SSG as well as complexity of FEA is limiting factor to run the calculation on most of projects. For these reason, a simplified analytical method was developed which predicts deformation of SSG extremely well compared to FEA predictions. The basis of the method was develop 25years ago and is included as annex in ETAG002. The method is based on the assumption that sealant does not influence the bending of glass, which can be calculated using the assumption of simply supported boundaries. The validation of the method was done by comparison of physical measurements, results from FEA and the simplified calculation method. To increase the accuracy further, an extension of the simplified relationship for nonlinear material is proposed, assuming a NeoHookean stress_strain behavior.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Glazed Multilayered Building Envelopes
Stage 2

Starting with a discussion and subsequent classification of double-skin facade systems the authors will focus on the latest concepts that have evolved within this construction typology (i.e. closed cavity facade, self conditioned facade). Following a review of design objectives and considerations on more common double skin facades, the paper will touch on benefits as well as challenges that are inherent when designing for a non accessible space between two glass units. Both systems, the actively pressurized and the passive self conditioned, are characterized by a confined volume. Delicate design is required to manage condensation and contamination. The paper will end with a critical reflection on limitations and briefly discuss the opposing target to minimize material and embodied energy in light of the European Union’s Roadmap 2050.

Structural Glass Connections
Stage 2

The design of structural glass is often governed by its connections. The paper will focus on a number of non-conventional structural glass connections designed and implemented by our company in different projects in Europe (UK, Spain) and abroad (Dubai). For each connection, the paper will include a discussion on the problem to be solved, design alternatives, and the final connection installed on site. Drawings and 3D models of the connections will be shown together with an outline of the structural calcs and pictures of the components on site. The aim of the paper is to promote the exchange of practical design ideas between participants, so that we can all learn from others.

All-glass Pavilions
Stage 2

The first glass pavilion is a transparent extension of the detached house to the garden of the client. The pavilion is 8,6m long, 5,8m wide and 4.2m high. The structural system consists on one hand of a glazed steel frame with four stanchions rigidly fixed to the base plate and connected by four transoms at the top and on the other hand of two laterally glass attachments. These are made of vertical load bearing glass walls and a horizontal glass roof, which are connected among each other by structural sealants. Together with an anchor profile that is completely hidden in the joint gap, the glass elements are also acting as bracing elements. Specifications of the building authorities called for a structural concept of the pavilon’s glass attachments for different states of destruction; in addition, extensive requirements had to be fulfilled to obtain a special building permit for the structural sealants. The project is an outstanding example for the possibilities in constructing with glass. It combines the structural features of a load bearing all glass building with state-of-the art joint techniques. The second pavilion, 8m long, 8m wide, 8m high, is under design at present.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

The Futurium Berlin – Large Scale SSG Rain Screen Facades without Mechanical Restraints: from Design to Installation
Stage 2

The opaque areas of the Futurium in Berlin designed by Richter Musikowski Architects are clad with an innovative pre-fabricated rainscreen system. The smooth and shimmering homogeneous skin resembles a space ship landed next to the river Spree. The installed facade features a diagrid with pre-fabricated cassettes of 0,5 m² size combining translucent textured glass screen with a folded reflector on the back. The variations of the position of reflector and screen pattern on the front of the glass lead to subtle transformations. The application of the structurally bonded, heat strengthened monolithic textured glass without mechanical restraints is the result of a close collaboration between all stakeholders. The final approval of this innovative and cost-effective solution is based on extensive testing simulating ageing effects under climatic influences and mechanical loads. The development of the cassette system with its sub-structure, fixing system and joint design was a complimentary process to the building design phases and showcases a successful strategy for implementing a product development approach. The talk will present the development from the perspective of the expert consultants along samples, models and visuals during concept stage, mock-ups and prototypes to the full scale testing and installation.

The Increasing Demand for Cyclone Resistant Glazing Solutions in the Asia- Pacific Region
Stage 2

The Asia-Pacific region has seen unprecedented growth over the past decade, both in terms of economy and population. As the growth in this area occurs, the demand for additional residential and office space has also increased, resulting in record numbers of tall buildings. The development in this area has largely occurred in coastal regions, which are vulnerable to climate-change-induced disasters, specifically cyclones. The Asia-Pacific region is the most disaster prone in the world, and since 1980, these disasters have been consistently increasing in frequency and severity, which has threatened the economic stability and growth of these highly-populated areas. Currently, the curtain wall is seen as the primary barrier to protect tall buildings and its occupants from these external threats. This research will examine the buildings that have been affected by cyclone events, buildings that are currently at risk, and steps that have already been taken to combat these threats. Next, projections of future threats will be made, which will emphasize the need for advancements in cyclone resistant glazing technologies and standards. Through these advancements, tall buildings could not only avoid major damage during cyclone events, but also serve as a refuge for local residents.

Glass Fins with Embedded Titanium Inserts for The Façades of The New Medical School Of Montpelli
Stage 2

The new Medical School of Montpellier, designed by François Fontes, is enclosed by several façades stiffened by the use of glass fins of until 12.7 meters high. The main façade assures the monumentality of the institution with over 65 meters long. The façade glass panels, with a maximum size of 3.8×2.8m, are piled transferring the dead load to the bottom panels through plastic setting blocks. The façade panels are attached with patch-fitting bolted to titanium inserts embedded in the vertical glass fins. The structural system is designed to resist seismic actions and to accommodate the displacement of the main structure under an earthquake scenario. The stability to lateral buckling and under seismic loads is guaranteed with a system of cables and rods which transmits the in-plane forces to the main structure. The post-breakage behaviour of the multilaminate heat-strengthened glass panels and the design of the façade guarantee the stability even under very aggressive accidental scenarios. The design, simulation, testing and fabrication of the structural elements of the façade are discussed in the paper.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Structural Glass in Building Restoration. Europe? S Tower Entrance Hall. Madrid. Spain
Stage 2

Currently in Spain the building restoration world of rehabilitation of office buildings is at boiling point. Many of these restorations are made to adapt the building to legislation and to implement improvements in energy efficiency, but also to give them a new exterior image. This new image intends to be actual and with a technological design without great design performances. In this new image, use of structural glass is a perfect idea because it involves a minimal intervention with little visual impact, and current and technological elements. This is the case of the new hall of Torre Europa in Madrid shown as a free dihedral glass composed of mullions 10 m high on which a horizontal beam glass is arranged to stabilize the assembly. This structure transmits the loads to the main building. The enclosure is made with laminated glass full height and 3 m wide which are stabilized by metal inserts put into the mullions. The project is owned by INFINORSA, and was conducted by the British architects RTKL with the Spanish study LKS. The consultancy tasks of the facade have been conducted by ENAR and the project has been awarded for construction to Bellapart.

Cost and Energy Saving Potential of Glass Facacde Construction
Stage 2

There are remarkable temperature difference between glass surface and indoor air when temperature is normal winter day temperature in Nordic Countries. Cold surface makes cold wall effect and cold air natural convection. With glass facades in cold climates traditionally has been used radiators or fan coils to improve winter time indoor conditions. Besides of current solutions, there are no guaranteed solution to prevent coldness and cold draught inside building. Fan coils and radiators heat façade up to 55°C during cold winter day. This makes heat loss double compared to system where glass surface temperature is heated with electricity to room temperature 21°C. Remarkable energy can be saved by using electrically heatable glass in facades in Nordic climate conditions. Radiators and fan coils needs space from floor area which is very costly and fan coils/radiators needs investment. Glass facades in cold climates can be made remarkable lower costs with electrically heatable glass. Pure façade purchase cost with electrically heatable glass is more expensive than façade without heatable glass, when only pure façade costs are compared. When also necessary compensative HVAC system and space savings are taken account, huge sagings can be reached. Savings from reduced floor space and savings coming from missing fan coils / radiators will make electrically heated glass façade superior compared to non-active glass façade. Total saving from this new façade can be up to 50%.

TBA
Stage 2

Glass & Sustainability; Do's and Don't of Building Facades
Glass & Sustainability; Do's and Don't of Building Facades
Glass & Sustainability; Do's and Don't of Building Facades
Active BIPV Glass facades: current trends of innovation, between new semantics and technological possibilities
Stage 1

On the path towards the implementation of nearly zero-energy buildings, the integration of photovoltaics in buildings (BIPV) is contributing to the achievement of the energy goals. In detail, the use of glass BIPV modules is improving due to the fact that they can replace almost every conventional building material, contributing actively to the building energy balance. But, is the transfer of the PV in architecture only a matter of energy? Certainly not. Along with the multi-functionality of the building skin, BIPV involves a new aesthetics in contemporary architecture. Thanks to innovations in glass development and customization, a wide range of architectural languages arises in current applications, that can be used for BIPV solution, ranging from the semantics of solar cells to the technological mimicry. The aim of this paper is to describe the current researches and trends of innovation in the use of glass BIPV modules for the building facades, through the discussion of some pilot case studies collected by the Swiss BIPV Competence Center (www.bipv.ch). Moreover, this study will create a platform for a primary discussion aimed to describe the innovative factors for the technological transfer of the PV glazing elements in the built environment.

Innovative BIPV façade on administrative building in Klaipeda, Lithuania
Stage 1

The promising area of building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) is still considered to be reserved for exclusive construction. However, BIPV potential is much greater and design-led solar solutions could be developed in an easier way. Therefore SmartFlex project team has overcame many challenges and showed real potential of BIPV on double skin façade on administrative building in Klaipeda. Almost 600m² façade is covered with PV modules varying from 0.7×3.5 up to 1.8 x3.7m in size. One of the main innovative approaches used in façade is top end digital printing technology which lifts BIPV in to another level of aesthetics.

Numerically simulating the impact of hail in photovoltaic
Stage 1

A numerical model of low speed impact from hail to photovoltaic panel is created. The hail stone is modeled with smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. The photovoltaic panels are modeled with finite elements like a laminate structure. The glass is modeled with brittle fracture material model. Cracks patterns and stress in silicon cells for different location of impact are obtained.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Thermal and Hygrothermal Performance Monitoring of Advanced Insulation Materials Used in Curtain Wall Spandrel Panels
Stage 1

Concerns over global warming and climate change have been influencing every aspect of the built environment. An effective way to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings is to reduce the thermal transmission through exterior building envelopes. These new thrusts towards increased energy efficiency are providing reinvigorated impetus to develop new technologies and solutions for energy efficient exterior building envelope constructions. The proposed research initiative will focus on the development and demonstration of energy efficient building envelope solutions applicable to both existing and new buildings. We plan to conduct long term field testing and monitoring of spandrel panels utilizing new insulation technologies. Once the panels have been installed, monitoring of the thermal and hygrothermal performance will be conducted over a two year period with full exposure to actual extreme environmental and occupancy use conditions. The modified spandrel panels will utilize thin aerogel-based hybrid insulation technology and be configured in an attempt to alleviate thermal bridging issues associated with current spandrel panel design. At the end of the project, the goal is to have proven the validity of the modified spandrel panel design for use in both new and retrofitted curtain wall systems. The process, progress, and results will be discussed.

Deconstructing the Thermal Performance of a Window: How to achieve better performing façades
Stage 1

With the increased focus on providing daylight and views for building occupants and improved indoor environmental quality (e.g. thermal comfort, air quality), as well as reducing energy consumption, a significant tension has been created around the design of the building envelope.  While the use of highly glazed façades allows for sufficient daylight and views, they can also create thermal comfort issues for occupants near them, condensation issues because of cold interior surfaces (which can become breeding grounds for mould), and reduce the overall thermal performance of the façade (since walls are in general more insulating than windows). However, with the right design using daylight harvesting and high performance fenestration, an envelope system can be designed which is more energy efficient than an opaque wall [1], and thermal comfort and condensation issues can be overcome.  Indeed, the US DOE has stated that the net zero envelope design is one that has fenestration with very low U-factor (0.1 btu/oF.ft2.hr), dynamic solar control and integrated dimmable lighting control [2].  And they predict that the use of highly insulating windows alone can save 1 Quadrillion (1015) BTUs annually if installed the entire US commercial building stock.  Given that commercial buildings use about 20 Quads annually, this represents a 5% energy savings from just improving the U-factor alone. Over the years, the industry has relied heavily on the increasing performance of low-e coatings to drive window U-factors (thermal transmittance) lower.  The center of glass U-factor is, however, only part of the story and to achieve the lowest U-factors needed to get to, or close to, net zero we need to look more broadly at the window as a system.  The full performance of the window is determined also by the frame and the edge of glass conductance, as well as aspects related to air leakage and installation.  In fact, depending of glass size, the center of glass performance can contribute to less than half of the U-factor of the window. In order to help designers specify the appropriate fenestration components and performance, we will deconstruct the factors that make up the U-factor and condensation resistance of a window, and look at the sensitivity of these parameters to different edge of glass parameters such as frame, frame bite relative to spacer sight line, sealant height, spacer conductivity, etc.  We will also provide considerations relative to the edge of glass components and demonstrate the use of polyamide pressure plates for improved curtain-wall performance, and as a retrofit strategy.

Qualifying and quantifying thermal comfort in highly glazed spaces
Stage 1

This paper aims to answer a simple and elemental question: how do we qualify and quantify thermal comfort in highly glazed spaces with diverse occupants’ use and expectation? And, how can designers achieve enhanced occupant experience with passive measures, minimizing the use of HVAC systems in such spaces? In this study variables such as air and radiant temperatures, air velocity, relative humidity and direct solar component were identified as the “working tools” in order to create indoor environments that fulfil expectations and serve the building’s function. Parameters such as adaptability, occupants’ expectation and duration of stay within each space are also elemental on the acceptance levels when thermal comfort conditions are not complying with the set performance requirements. The study investigates the existing standards and comfort models and synthesizes this knowledge to develop a “hands on” method (tool) that will help designers meet the comfort expectations of diverse spaces with respect to the vision and the functionality of the building. As a result an excel based tool was developed that can help designers in understanding thermal comfort and the important affecting variables, leading to appropriate measures for avoiding thermal discomfort and fulfilling the set performance requirements.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

The Building Façade Concept
Stage 1

The Specifications and Material Compatibility
Stage 1

The Manufacture and Supply of the Façade Components
Stage 1

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

A Case Study of Design and Collaboration
Stage 1

111 Main presented a unique challenge of façade design. A 35’ tall all glass storefront designed and constructed in a market that had no prior experience with glass of that scale, and almost three feet of vertical movement between the glass storefront and the tower above. The design and execution of a structural glass façade required input and expertise from a wide range of professionals, including the Architect, Engineer, Specialty Glass Engineer and Builder. By assembling the core team of specialists, the Owner achieved their goal of developing an exceptional and iconic building in the heart of Salt Lake City, Utah.

A Case Study – Unitized façade system designed with a highly transparent façade of low G-value combined with blast requirements
Stage 1

TBA
Stage 1

Quality Management
Quality Management
Quality Management
Roller Wave & Milli Diopter, but what can we see and how does it Look?
Stage 6

Local distortion“ or colloquially called „Roller waves“ is the current term to describe a geometrical imperfection over a short distance (300 mm) along the glass surface. Measurements of such imperfections can be easily produced with a feeler gauge and a straight ruler or you can buy some more sophisticated measurement equipment. The measurements are accurate and can be easily repeated, satisfying the production and QM department. Standard EN 12150 & 1863 states that over a distance of 300 mm you can have a maximum deflection of 3,00 mm. However this does not tell us what the naked eye can see. What the naked eye can see is a wavelength with its corresponding amplitude. And this is where millidiopter can be used.  A metric measurement of the optical power bringing the wavelength and wave depth into consideration. So by its nature millidiopters are a much better unit to describe the optical quality of glass. Let’s look at the details of millidiopters. How can we measure them? How do they work in transmission or reflection? What about the viewing angle and the distance to the reflected objects?

The Psychology of Perception, Threshold, And Emotion in Interior Glass Design
Stage 6

This paper will discuss the psychology of perception, threshold, and emotion in interior glass design. Color theory and referenced material behind threshold will be presented, and the implication of threshold in the design and specification of glass in various architectural applications will be examined. Humans have the ability to discern color and contrast but there is a range of differences in colors and contrast that are not perceivable to the human brain. The signal strength between the differences has to be great enough for the mind to be able to conclude there is a difference. This phenomenon is known as threshold. The emotional content of shapes and colors will also be investigated. What shapes and colors are most pleasing and how aesthetics impact the psychological state of occupants will be presented.

Comparison Between Quality Requirements in Norms and Actual Client Expectations
Stage 6

In these days, when building facades covered almost entirely by glass is nothing to be surprised about and when there are so much more possibilities to use glass in more ways than just as a transparent object separating outside from inside, there is a big need for professionals capable of producing high quality up-to date products. But what can be taken as a quality standard nowadays? Today top three flat glass markets that have the most potential for growth are: Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa, The United States. This article will try to showcase the differences of so called “quality standard” as defined in European and United States norms and to compare them to the quality standard stated in client’s specifications. Some of the quality requirements stated in norms and clients expectations are presented in real life situations for comparison.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

XX(X)L Glass - Quality Control, Logistics & Insurance
Stage 6

The use of extra over-sized glass becomes increasingly relevant in modern architecture. Animated by the ultimate desire of opening spaces with minimized visual destruction, clean and transparent surfaces as well as simplified element structures, architects and engineers aspire to push the limits of today’s glass fabrication. How does the industry assure and control that the custom manufactured over-sized glass still meets or even exceeds quality standards acceptable to its clients? The impact of rejection or product failure is quantified by extraordinary cost in production, logistics and installation. The role of an educated insurance advisory becomes a need for protecting risk, rights and large investments clients, but also manufactures are exposed to. This paper outlines what standards are available, and how the industry needs to expand these standards (or warranties) in the same manner as glass dimensions are being enlarged to understand, coordinate and mitigate risks for clients and manufacturers. The analysis further includes transportation and logistical aspects of super-large glass, becoming an engineering science for itself. What is the impact of logistics on total cost and what are the steps required to be considered to control and insure the process of construction, schedule and risk mitigation.

Infrared Temperature Measurement in The Glass Industry
Stage 6

Temperature measurement at critical locations in the production process is essential for full understanding and efficient control of glass manufacture and processing. Blanket (or melt line) temperature, crown and wall temperatures of a glass tank are all monitored to prevent refractory overheating and damage to the furnace. Process monitoring inside glass melt tanks traditionally utilized visual camera technology and manual inspections. Standard visual cameras show changing conditions, but image intensity is not directly proportional to temperature. Process optimisation based on visual information leads to overheating or inefficient combustion. Manual inspections are slow, labour intensive and expose operators to significant risk. Data trending is difficult as operators measure temperature at slightly different points. The AMETEK LAND NIR Borescope provides a true-temperature radiometric image, so live temperature values can be obtained from >324,000 pixels. The flame is clearly visible, as are any air leaks and glass leaks. The operator can monitor all positions from the safety of the control room, with a simulation of a traditional camera view and automated alarm outputs to instantly warn of any problems with the process/instrument. The instrument provides continuous coverage 24/7, allowing long term data trending for product quality and fuel optimisation.

Non-Contact Glass Temperature Measurement? The Correct Adaptation of IR Thermometers and Cameras to Different Applications
Stage 6

During the whole process of glass production and further treatment the temperature is one of the most important values to be measured, either directly for production control or for documentation or both of them. For precise measurement the behavior of glass regarding IR-radiation must be known. There are influences from the ambient area as well as specific emissivity values of different glass types. Therefore, the right type of sensor or camera has to be chosen. The installation of the measurement equipment must be done properly to its location and under consideration of influences from outside. Parameters like distance and viewing angle need to be observed. Next to the optical characteristics the environmental influences like ambient temperature are important for a reliable and exact long-term measurement. The presentation will explain the theory of spectral dependency to reflection of glass. The presenter will show and demonstrate different measurement results by using different devices. Furthermore, he will show examples of proven and successful running systems in different glass applications.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Solutions for Closed-Loop Process Control of Lowe Glass Production for Architecture, Automotive and Smart Applications
Stage 6

Excelling in today’s architectural glass coating industry means providing advanced emissivity properties. This particularly applies to the automotive glass applications with regards to electrical cars which have no waste heat for heating, windshield deicing and defogging. LowE layers provide for those applications additional benefit which will drive the demand for high quality LowE glass. Today´s glass runs through numerous processes before achieving a satisfying emissivity and quality. After Silver and Oxide have been deposited the high temperature processes, such as tempering or bending, significantly affect the emissivity. Controlling those processes requires constant monitoring of the optical and electrical properties to achieve the desired performance level in the final process step. As the incoming properties of the product can vary at different points of the process, controlling is a challenging task which can be supported by inline measurement of the emissivity. This talk presents potentials when using electrical and optical metrology solutions for quality assurance in the respective fields. It shares insights on state-of-the-art achievements in process control, when applying metrology applications. It focuses on non-contact Eddy Current measurement technology and suggests closed-loop control to consider the interdependencies of electrical properties for subsequent processes.

From Color to Chemometrics: Strategies to Determine Coating Thickness and Quality
Stage 6

Within the glass processing industry a well-known method to perform in-situ process control is the determination of color. Therefore, most coating plants for glass or foils are equipped with visible wavelength range spectrometersfor two purposes: (1) Monitoring the appearance and the intended final color / quality (2) Color values and their variation as very sensitive indicators for applied layer thicknesses. However, for more complex layer designs, e.g. triple silver coatings, color variation might be misleading layer thickness indicators. In these cases physical method based calculation processes must be used to determine the layer thickness from the measured spectral data. Another field of application is the wet coating on diffuse materials like paper. A demand for process control and thus process capable metrology arises out of this. Neither color measurement nor thickness determination based upon interference are sufficient to provide stable process metrology results. Therefore, a method based on chemometric models was introduced to provide the machine operator with reliable process information. The talk will show how a combination of different process capable methods – color, physical, and chemometric models – helps the operator to stabilize coating processes and control the final product quality with a single equipment.

Taking control of anisotropy in tempering process: the new way
Stage 6

Anisotropy is caused by stress differences in the glass which result from uneaven heating and cooling of the glass in the tempering process. The phenomenon becomes  visible when glass is viewed in polarized light - which is why anisotropy is especially visible for example when glass is installed by seaside or high in the mountains. In certain conditions anisotropy can become visible other venues as well. Anisotropy is first and foremost a visual defect and it does not make glass weaker from a mechanical point of view. Laws, regulations and standards define requirements for safety glass regarding it's mechanical strength. Hence, anisotropy is traditionally not considered as a defect from a regulatory point of view. However, anisotropy can effectively ruin a facade's appearance, which is why it should not be overlooked. A key factor here is also measurement technology that hasn't been able to provide reliable and fast measurements of all processed glasses. Taking control of anisotropy has been a continuous headache for glass processors. By using latest machinery and technology it is possible to get better results regarding anisotropy - and solutions for controlling anisotropy are getting more and more sophisticated.  In this session we will take a look of how anisotropy can be controlled and measured with latest technology.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Anisotropy and White Haze On-Line Inspection System
Stage 6

The new Anisotropy Scanner provides first time an efficient measuring method, which delivers images and measurement results in real-time. This collected isotropy data objectively and repeatably describes the quality of the toughened glass. The camera based Anisotropy Scanner can be integrated into a wide range of production processes, for example after the tempering furnace, no matter its size. The measuring and displaying of the anisotropy values occurs On-line for each glass pane or complete glass batches. The data can be archived and used to produce detailed quality reports. The obtained anisotropy values also allow for a measurable quality standard to be determined, which can be controlled and documented reliably with the help of our scanner. Furthermore, the same inspection system, is able to detect and quantify “White Haze“ right after the furnace. This again occurs during the ongoing production process in real-time.

Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness of Glazing Components
Stage 6

As wirelessly transmitted data has become widespread, the need to protect this data also increases. The obvious first level of protection is to secure the network; however, this does stop potential electronic eavesdroppers from seeing that the network exists. Utilizing Radio Frequency (RF) shielding glass within a building façade creates a Faraday Cage, which keeps any wireless data contained so eavesdroppers won’t know a network even exists. Prior to 2014, there was no standard method to test the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of glazings; however, various modified IEEE 299 methods were completed using varying frequency ranges, antenna types/locations, enclosure environments and glass sizes, each depending on the equipment at the specific test location. ASTM F3057-14 was developed to standardize the test method such that attenuation results focus on the glass itself and not the framing system, so product comparisons can now be made industry wide. Viracon has completed testing using both a modified IEEE method and the ASTM method for various RF shielding glass products. The results will show that a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) product has better attenuation than a film product, along with providing better thermal performance and more light transmission for greater color selection.

TBA
Stage 6

Research & Development
Research & Development
Research & Development
Influence of the Distribution of Residual Stress on Strength Tests
Stage 4

In several standards such as EN 1288 test scenarios for the determination of strength of glass is described. On the one hand there is the ring-on-ring test for the determination of the strength of glass without and on the other hand there is the four-point-bending test for the determination of the strength of glass with the influence of the edge strength. All these tests are described having perfect conditions. For example glass is homogeneous or test set-ups are without any imperfection. One interesting part is the distribution of the residual stress over the thickness and along the surface. Residual stress is caused by thermal or chemical pre-stress of glass. In case of heat strengthened or fully tempered glass photo-elastic studies of the stress distribution showed that the distribution over the surface is not constant. This not constant distribution is shown in a grey pattern, which can be visualized with the principle of polarized light. This paper is a discussion about this grey pattern, imperfections and measured stress with the help of SCALP stress measurement device. This investigation helps to understand much better the reason of the location of the origin of fracture.

Biaxially Curved Glass? Determination of Strength using the Coaxial Double Ring Test
Stage 4

The coaxial double ring test is used for determining the surface strength of flat glass as it is described in existing standards. The main idea of this test setup is to generate a defined area of surface tension stress, which is uniform in all directions within the load ring. Thus, the orientation of surface flaws does not influence the test results. Furthermore, the defined area with uniform stress allows a statistical evaluation with regard to the flaw distribution and therefore a prediction for deviating area sizes is possible. For biaxially curved glass, the generation of such an area of uniform tension is not possible easily. However, for large radii of curvature and low glass thicknesses it is possible to flatten the specimen and to generate an area of uniform tension stress with increasing load. This contribution shows under which geometrical conditions the coaxial double ring test can be used for biaxially curved glass. Taking into account the method of effective stresses, inhomogeneous stress distributions with regard to orientation and intensity can be evaluated thus the range of applicability can be increased. Finally, the determination of fracture stresses for different load levels for the test setup is illustrated.

Identification of A Rheological Model for Viscoelastic Materials in Structural Engineering
Stage 4

Many materials in modern civil engineering applications, such as coated carbon reinforcement grids or PVB-interlayers for safety glass, are polymer-based. These materials are showing distinct viscoelastic and temperature dependent behaviour. In literature, different mathematical representations of these phenomena exist. A common one is the Prony-series representation, which is implemented in many state-of-the-art Finite-Element-Analysis-Software. The Prony-parameters can either be determined by relaxation or retardation experiments in the time domain or with a steady state oscillation in the frequency domain. However, present research shows that polymeric materials also may need to have constitutive equations which include hyperelasticity when undergoing large deformations and which also may respect the Mullins- or Payne-Effect, so that the material model should be expanded for a more realistic representation in numerical simulations. A novel method for the whole identification process of a numerical material model based on experimental data within a stochastic framework will be presented. It will be shown that the Bayesian inference approaches are advantageous over deterministic approaches as they allow incomplete and noisy measurement data and quantitatively assess uncertainties and sensitivity. The findings are demonstrated via examples from engineering practice.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Influence of Weathering on Post-Fracture Performance
Stage 4

In this paper, the post-fracture performance of weathered laminated glass is investigated; specifically regarding interlayer performance. Glass structures requiring post-fracture capacity often utilise full scale destructive tests to confirm post-fracture performance. These full-scale tests are always carried out on newly manufactured glass. Although accelerated weathering tests have been conducted on laminated glass, these are often to investigate the visible deterioration of the interlayer only. Little is known about the deterioration in mechanical performance, particularly post-fracture mechanical performance. In this work, the influence of weathering is investigated for small scale PVB laminates. Through crack tensile (TCT) tests were performed on weathered laminates and compared to newly manufactured specimens. Three different weathering series were investigated; two artificially weathered series, in which specimens were exposed to accelerated ageing procedures; and one natural weathering series. The accelerated ageing techniques were defined by ISO 12543 for investigating exposure to high humidity and high temperature. All weathering procedures were found to reduce the post-fracture performance of the laminates, when compared to the newly manufactured specimens. This work highlights the importance for research into the post-fracture performance of full-scale laminates

TBA
Stage 4

Experimental and Numerical Studies on Blast Resistance of Laminated Glass
Stage 4

Laminated glass, composed of interlayer plies sandwiched by glass panels, is widely used as safety glass to prevent high-speed fragments subjected to blast loading. The fracture of glass and the large deformation of interlayer can effectively dissipate energy and provide favorable resistance against blast loading. However, dynamic behavior, especially the post-crack performance, of laminated glass is not well understood so far, which may lead to an inappropriate design. In this paper, site blast tests and numerical studies on simple supported laminated glass panel have been carried out. Firstly, a series of site blast tests are conducted considering different compositions of glazing and different loadings. Then, nonlinear dynamic responses and failure modes of simple supported laminated glazing are numerical analyzed. Based on the findings from experimental and numerical studies, critical states of laminated glass in both impulsive region and quasi-static region of P-I diagram are defined. Theoretical formulae for pressure asymptotes and impulse asymptotes of laminated glass under different damage levels are then proposed based on energy method. The theoretical results are validated against site blast and numerical tests and can provide guidance for engineering blast resistant design for laminated glazing.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Blast performance of point fixed assemblies utilizing crystal clear TSSA
Stage 4

Architectural preferences for commercial building continue towards increased transparency resulting in large lites of glass with minimal visual obstruction. Point fixed glazing systems meeting this architectural desire are popular especially in entry or common areas at ground level. Recent technology advances have allowed the use of super high strength adhesives to attach these large lites to fittings without the requirement of drilling through glass. The typical ground floor location increases the probability that the system must function as a protective layer for occupants of the building above and beyond the typical wind loading requirements. Some testing has been completed on drilled point fixing systems but not on the adhesive method. The purpose of this paper is to document mock-up testing using a shock tube with an explosive charge to simulate blast loads onto adhesively bonding transparent assemblies. The variables include pre-defined blast loads from ASTM F2912 performed on lites laminated with polyvinyl butyral interlayer. The study, a first of its kind, enables the ability to quantify potential blast performance for use in large scale testing and building design. The testing shows that engineering of the system can be done to design adhesively attached systems to meet specified loads.

Parametric Study of Advanced Structural Silicone Glazing
Stage 4

Increasing magnitude of wind loads on facades has spurred development of advanced engineering techniques to design more efficient structural silicone glazing (SSG) systems. Traditional methods of analysis for SSG have provided successful performance for decades. However, hurricane level wind pressures require larger amounts of adhesive when following traditional SSG design methods. This compels curtain wall framing members to become wider and wider to accommodate the increased dimension of the SSG joint. Desire for a slimmer, more elegant architectural aesthetic and a larger day light opening can be accomplished using better science. This paper includes parametric studies using Hyper-Elastic Finite Element Analysis techniques to examine how geometry of the SSG joint affects structural performance.

The Application of Glass as A Bracing Element
Stage 4

In a current research project at the Universität der Bundeswehr München a timber glass composite shear wall has been developed and tested. With the goal to apply glass into a bracing element, a force-fitted connection between the timber frame and the glass pane is realized through blockings. These are disposed near the corners of the glass pane as in a common window. In this way the system enables the load transfer of horizontal forces through compression diagonals within the glass pane. Besides the load introduction into the glass through its edges, the stability of the pane is an important criterion for the maximum load of the system. The experiments and numerical studies of this research are the basis for a long term monitoring project in a real life situation.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Engineering and Applications of the Bundled Glass Column
Stage 4

This paper presents the engineering steps towards the realisation of loadbearing bundled glass columns, composed of adhesively bonded standardized extruded borosilicate rods. The possibilities and constrains during the design and fabrication phases, and the potential architectural applications of such structural elements are evaluated. Previous experimental work conducted in 0.5m and 1.5m long prototypes has demonstrated the strength and typical failure behaviour of this type of element. Specifically, the 0.5m long specimens fail under compression when the stresses due to expansion in the perpendicular to the load direction exceed the tensile strength of the applied adhesive. Until this stress level, the adhesive allows the bundle to function as one monolithic unit. Due to their high slenderness ratio, the 1.5m long specimens fail after visible buckling at lower stress values. Based on these results, prototypes on a scale relevant to building applications are made and tested in compression to further evaluate the performance of the column and its feasibility in practice. To increase the safety of the column, different safety measures for a gradual and controlled failure behaviour are assessed. Based on these results, a final design is proposed, including the detailing of the top and bottom connections.

Applied Machine Learning in Structural Glass Design
Stage 4

Machine learning, a type of artificial intelligence, is becoming increasingly prevalent in everyday life. Email spam filters, autonomous cars, and speech recognition all rely on machine learning algorithms to function accurately and efficiently. Such algorithms allow computers to learn without being explicitly programmed, allowing them to grow increasingly accurate with more data. This paper will explore the potential of this technology to assist in the field of structural glass design. To demonstrate this, machine learning algorithms will be trained on a database of analytical and computational structural glass solutions. Once trained, the algorithm’s accuracy will be assessed and used to predict glass build-ups for a variety of geometries and applied loads. When used in combination with experienced structural engineers, such intelligent predictors have significant benefits in early stage design, allowing rapid and accurate assessment of glass.

Is current sizing of float glass structures too much conservative?
Stage 4

Structural design of float glass is performed with the semi-probabilistic approach by defining partial factors for glass strength, calibrated with full probabilistic methods on paradigmatic case-studies. Although the most used statistics for float-glass strength is the 2-parameter Weibull’s (2PW), we show that it fails to interpret the extreme tail of the population of experimental data, associated with small failure probabilities. The tails govern the calibration of partial factors, since the target values for failure probability admitted for a construction work are very small; hence, this statistics leads to very conservative design. Contrariwise, from experiments a lower bound for float-glass strength, attributable to modern factory production controls, is recognizable. Moreover, through a micro-mechanically-motivated interpretation, we show that corrosion/abrasion do not imply the decay of strength below a certain limit, inducing instead a lower dispersion in the data. Therefore, we propose to use generalized Weibull statistics, among which the left-truncated Weibull distribution, to better interpret the tail of the population. Partial material factors calibrated with the novel approach are considerably lower than with the 2PW statistics. Enormous saving could be achieved with this more refined statistical approach to interpret float-glass strength.

Structural Glass Applications
Structural Glass Applications
Structural Glass Applications
Shaping Ultra-Thin Glass
Stage 3

Ultra-thin glass is neither a new product nor new to the building environment. It is yet very little utilized in translucent facades for stiffness, detailing and cost reasons. This paper describes the elaboration of an ultra-thin glass sculpture, from concept to detail, with explorations worth the eye of the façade designers. The design tools, testing procedure and installation are documented. This work is supported by the 2016 Fellowship from the Metropolitan Contemporary Glass Group.

Probabilistic Study of Wind-Temperature Interaction: An Initial Study Towards Optimized Structural Assessment of Glass Components
Stage 3

The structural assessment of building components is generally performed by ensuring that performance capacities are greater than capacity demands. In glass applications, the structural performance of a glass component is compared with the action and the loads acting on the element. On the resistance side, the mechanical response of a glass component is strongly dependent on its temperature. The latter is computed as a function of several parameters such as the environmental boundary conditions and its physical characteristics. On the action side, the wind pressure is characterized by a stochastic behaviour randomly distributed over the component’s design life. Limited information are available on the correlation between the wind action and the environmental boundary condition. This work presents a first preliminary study on the stochastic interaction between wind speed and the aforementioned environmental boundary conditions, performed by means of probabilistic approaches. The results show that the probabilistic interaction of different parameters play an important role in the performance assessment of structural components in glass applications. These preliminary results also highlight that further detailed research should be performed to enhance the efficiency and accuracy of the structural assessment and design of glass components.

Glass Constructions Under Extreme Boundary Conditions
Stage 3

Building with glass as structural element becomes more and more common. Under special boundary conditions this can be a challenge concerning design and execution of the building site. In this paper several projects will be presented: Two projects in alpine areas and one project with very special loads, the so called “flight chamber”. One of these projects is the summit station of the “Nebelhornbahn” on 2224m height. The project will be finished in autumn 2016. The building itself is a timber construction with a curved façade and curved balustrade. Aspects of structural design of the balustrade, important detail problems and installation are presented. The second project is the “Eibseebahn to the Zugspitze, the highest mountain in Germany. A new ropeway including a new building on the summit is under construction and will be completed in 2017. Here specials of the façade will be presented. The third example is the “flight chamber”. This is a glazed construction for indoor skydiving. With the help of an inside air pressure of up to 270 km/h, it is possible to simulate free flying and airdrops. The flight chamber is made of a glazed Cylinder with a diameter of 4.5m.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Hybrid Glass Structures
Stage 3

There is a constant flux of projects where the transparency is primary objective, set by both clients and architects. As such this is achievable only by a significant increase on the amount of glass used in the building/structure. On other hand similar push for smaller, slender structural elements create pressures in terms of code compliance where structural safety is in question. Combining both objectives leading to the contribution of the glass panels to the total structural performance. The glass contribution to the overall performance of the building can be significant, allowing for savings on the amount of materials and construction time. Current guidelines on the analysis, basis of design, methodology, and constructability process are scattered and sometimes not consistent. We reviewed projects where hybrid glass structures were used. Common materials consist of steel/stainless steel or with fibre reinforced polymers. We assessed the adequacy of the structural scheme and materials used. A compilation of the available literature, is allowing for a broad view of the state-of-the-art knowledge on this theme. A numerical study of an example structure will be made. Discussion on engineering complexity and permit process will conclude this study.

New Concept of Horizontal Structural Elements in Glass: Self bearing “Pi” Shape Plate
Stage 3

A new design of structural glass application is presented, based on a horizontal self-bearing and pre-stressed glass solution. Our main objectives were to design, develop manufacture and test a completely transparent slender walkway, having the particularity of being self-bearing. The starting point for the design has been the well behaviour of pre-stressed beams in terms of load capacity. Special care has been taken during design state to fulfil five safety requirements: resistance, retention, redundancy, post-breakage resistance and standard regulations. For the design and verification of the model, analytic structural calculus and finite element models have been used. The effect of different pre-stress loads and buckling behaviour of the element have been studied, obtaining the relationship between load capacity, deflections, maximum tensional stress in glass and design parameters. Finally, a full glass prototype has been built and tested. During the load test, deformation and the evolution of stress was recorded and measured using a polariscope. The glass element was lead to breakage to validate the data obtained in the design phase and achieving relevant information regarding the post-breakage behaviour. Load was increased up to 2.5 times design load to reach the collapse state.

Enabling Crystal Clear Façades
Stage 3

Interest to include glass to façades has always been present due to its transparency enabling interaction between indoor and outdoor. Major advances in technology have enabled fully glazed sustainable designs providing the demanded aesthetic, whilst respecting occupant benefits such as daylight and energy efficiency systems. This explains the growing interest for increased glass in facades in commercial buildings. The use of bulky frames limiting the transparency of a façade can be minimized through adapted fixation systems including structural glazing designs. Yet even these have their limitations since the adhesive used for the bonding, the weathersealing or the secondary sealing of insulating glass units, are not necessarily both transparent and durable. This paper discusses design possibilities and material properties offered by crystal clear silicones

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Production and Testing of Kiln-Cast Glass Components for an Interlocking, Dry-Assembled Transparent Bridge
Stage 3

A pedestrian glass bridge, located at the TU Delft campus site, is designed by the TU Delft Glass & Transparency Lab. The arch-formed bridge consists of cast glass, dry-assembled, interlocking components. To validate the components’ shape, glass mock-ups are kiln-cast and tested. This paper follows the elements’ production process from the milled MDF model and the construction of disposable moulds via the lost-wax technique, to the kiln-casting at 940C with the flowerpot method. Steps are taken towards the refinement of the production technique, with emphasis in minimizing the occurrence of air bubbles, surface flaws and internal stresses that reduce the load-bearing capacity of the components. Polarisation techniques are employed to define the residual stress distribution of the cast elements as well as to map the consolidated flow of molten glass and the areas of inhomogeneity or non-cohesion. The structural performance of the components and the interlocking system is studied by conducting a 4-point bending test on an arch specimen comprising 20 glass bricks with a transparent PU interlayer in-between. The results are compared with similar tests conducted with glass units produced by other methods, such as waterjet cutting or hot-pouring.

The Strength of Aged Glass
Stage 3

Glass is known for its excellent durability, but the strength of glass is very sensitive to the characteristics of its surface, which in turn accumulates damage during its service life. There is however a lack of strength data on weathered or aged glass, particular on thermally or chemically treated glass. In this study a carefully calibrated sand trickling test is used to reproduce the surface damage found on naturally weathered annealed glass after 20-years in service. The sand trickling regime is then used on of different types of glass that vary in terms of glass composition (soda-lime-silica / alumiosilicate) and residual stress profile (annealed / fully toughened / chemically toughened / bi-toughened). The aged glass specimens and un-aged control specimens are tested destructively in a coaxial double ring set-up and fractrography is used to identify and measure the critical flaw size on each specimen. The strength data are analysed statistically and the design strengths for each glass type are obtained. It is found that all glasses suffer a loss in strength after artificial ageing, but some treatments are significantly more resistant to ageing than others.

Testing Various Polymers for Suitability as Interlayer Between Glass Blocks
Stage 3

At Delft University a glass bridge will be built in 2017. The structural principle of the bridge is a Roman arch: solid glass blocks are stacked in a semicircle. Large compression forces are transferred between the glass blocks. Unevenness of the contact surfaces can lead to stress concentrations and cracking of the glass. Therefore the load has to be transferred by a ductile material in order to evenly distribute the stresses. This paper documents the research into polymers as that ductile interface. The interface must: – be clear and transparent. – be ductile. – UV resistant. – have little time dependent deformation. On this basis four polymers have been selected: Soft Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Poly Urethane (PU), Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and Poly Carbonate. Lab tests are done to determine the stiffness of the polymer interlayer. The compression stiffness of a polymer interlayer between glass blocks is quite complex to determine analytically. The Young’s Modulus, the Poisson ratio, the friction between the polymer and the glass, the stress and loading time all play a role. Using a FEM model, an attempt is made to gain some understanding of the influence of these parameters on the stiffness of the polymer interlayer.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Sandwich Design of Mechanically Efficient and Structurally Slim Vision Panels
Stage 3

Glass panes adhesively-bonded to structural profiles allow for the design of stiff, structurally-redundant and transparent sandwich structures. In beam applications this is often achieved by bonding glass webs to glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) or steel flanges. However in glazing panel applications, e.g. vision panels of building envelopes, the need for transparency requires a swap in the position of these components: i.e. GFRP or steel core profiles are used to separate glass face sheets. Very limited research exists on the mechanical response of sandwich vision panels. The objective of this research is to study the shear and post-fracture responses of these panels. Four-point bending tests were performed on short-span GFRP-glass and steel-glass panels (with epoxy and acrylic joints respectively). In contrast to steel-glass panels, GFRP-glass panels failed first due to shear in the core. Post-fracture capacities of more than 50% of the maximum resisted load were achieved in all panels. Deformations at collapse were large due to the progressive failure of GFRP profiles and the plasticity of the acrylic adhesive. Numerical modelling and a new analytical tool are presented to evaluate the mechanical response of adhesively-bonded panels.

Deformations in Fragments of Tempered Glass - Experimental and Numerical Investigation
Stage 3

Tempered (or toughened) glass is used for a number of applications ranging from shower doors over car windows and building envelope to actual load-carrying structural elements such as beams, plates and shells. One of the challenges with tempered glass is to assemble it. Using traditional bolts require all holes to be drilled prior to the tempering process which again requires a high level of planning and unavoidably leads large tolerances due to high temperatures. Furthermore, some plate geometry might fail during tempering finally; it also requires a significant effort to estimate the apparent strength for a complicated geometry. Adhesives are an obvious alternative, where the pre-tempered process can be avoided. Again, adhesives might show time-dependent properties and can react with the ambient conditions (UV-light, moisture, temperature etc.) This paper describes a pinned connection utilizing non-through drilled holes in tempered glass. Since the holes are not drilled all the way through the glass, they can be drilled after the tempering process. Small holes are used (diameter less than 5mm) and it has been shown that the residual stresses are redistributing in a favorable way. This paper describes the strength of a connection based on this principle.

Exploring The Potential of Free Standing Glass Columns Assembled from Stacked Interlocking Cast Elements
Stage 3

This paper presents the research conducted on free standing glass columns assembled from stacked interlocking cast elements. Glass has a compression strength exceeding that of concrete, constituting the concept of a glass column unique, considering the transparent design opportunities. However, due to the brittle nature of glass, safety is hard to guarantee in glass columns and there are thus only few realized examples. On the basis of structural safety, this research explores the potential of an innovative type of column of increased transparency and structural redundancy. As a case study, the replacement of the two existing concrete columns in the Berlage lecture room in the TU Delft Faculty of Architecture is proposed. In specific, 54 cast glass units of maximum 10Kg mass each, are stacked on top of each other to form a 6m high column. To allow for an easy assembly and disassembly, an interlocking shape for dry-stacking is designed, with a clear PET interlayer in-between to prevent the generation of peak stresses. Emphasis is also given to the connection detailing. As a proof of concept, 9 components are kilncast and tested under compression. The results demonstrate the structural and aesthetic potential of the designed column.

Tempering /Preprocessing
Tempering /Preprocessing
Tempering /Preprocessing
Nickel Sulphide will it ever go away
Stage 5

Spontaneous failure of glass units to Nickle Sulphide inclusions have been studied tested since the early 1960’s. People have been injured and property and reputations damaged. The glass industry has responded and the work of many dedicated people have led to a general satisfaction within the industry and general population that the issue of Spontaneous failure is under control and no long presents a public risk. Recent experience has indicated a significant increase in the reported number of spontaneous failure due to nickel sulphide and other spontaneous failures exhibiting traits consistent with NiS. These concerns are not only due to new glass but also legacy buildings that continue to shed glass. The later, challenges current wisdom that the problem subsides as the original population decreases. We have strong evidence this is not the case. Whatever the cause, new or old, current risk management is not working and building owners, insurers and contractors are being forced to find alternate management methods to control the risks of falling glass. We look at the causes of these new and ongoing glass failures due to inclusion. We have outlined methods for preparing risk assessments & modelling assessing the post failure behaviour of the glass.

On Safety of Heat-Soaked Thermally Toughened Glass Panes
Stage 5

Using a newly developed detection method, a variety of even small inclusions was identified in a relatively big batch of annealed glass. This allowed us to collect a high number of nickel sulphide inclusions for statistical evaluation. The respective NiS containing samples were thermally toughened and subject to Heat-Soak Test (HST) following EN 14179-1 (2 hours holding-time). Not all of them broke, we investigated why. Additionally, over years, we collected two data sets of position, size and composition measurements in breakage departure points of thermally toughened glass. One comprises breakages of un-soaked glass from buildings, the other exclusively breakages in HST’s. Both data sets were evaluated and characterized statistically. The respective comparison shows significant trends in size and position distributions, allowing interesting conclusions on the differences in breakage behavior between HS-tested and un-soaked glass panes. Through this, for the first time ever, we were able to quantify the proportion of breakages in Heat Soak Test that would never have led to breakages on buildings even without HST. This confirms the very high safety of the HS-tested glass, also under the aspect that HST temperature range shall soon be reduced by 30 degrees.

Controlling Anisotropy
Stage 5

Although anisotropy is inevitable when heat treating glass a major breakthrough took place in the industry in 2016 by developing an in-line anisotropy visualisation equipment. The result is an in-line equipment capable of visualizing and quantifying the level of anisotropy of each single heat treated glass based on the photo-elastic theory. This allows a scientific way of quantifying the level of anisotropy. The methodology and theory is explained allowing to use the photo-elastic theory to evaluate the level of anisotropy of each single heat treated glass and how this allows to guarantee the consistency of the produced glass with an approved mock-up glass in case of a project. An outlook for further development and improvement will be discussed.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Infrared Temperature Measurement of Thermally Tempered Low Emissivity Glass
Stage 5

Heat-strengthened and thermally tempered low emissivity glasses are commonly used architecturally where visual perfection is essential. To create visually perfect glass panes or lites, physical distortion must be avoided and uniform surface temperature profile achieved across the whole lite before entry to the cooling section. AMETEK Land specialises in infrared measurement for challenging industrial process control applications. Glass measurement solutions normally rely on measurements at 5µm, where the glass becomes opaque with emissivity typically 0.97. However modern low emissivity coatings reduce that emissivity to as little as 0.05. Incorrect estimation of emissivity leads to huge errors in temperature reading. We propose a solution that uses a 5µm line scanner measuring the low emissivity surface through the narrow gap between the furnace and air blowers, aligned with a 5µm spot thermometer taking measurements of the underside of the glass. The spot thermometer signal is used to compensate for the low emissivity of the upper surface of the glass. A true temperature thermal map of the entire product surface with sub-spot resolution is created in software from successive scan data, which can be used to adjust furnace control parameters and produce visually perfect glass.

Effects of Non-Uniform Heat Transfer on Glass Quality in A Tempering Process
Stage 5

Importance of heat transfer control on created residual stresses is well-known. Tempering of thin glasses has given new challenges not only to uniformity of heat transfer but also to energy consumption because very high heat transfer coefficients are required. This is achieved by using arrays of high velocity small air jets located near the glass surface which create large variation of the local heat transfer coefficient. Simultaneously optical anisotropies which are seen as stripes or spots in glass panes are formed. In the paper numerically calculated (CFD) local heat transfer results of impinging jets made with OpenFOAM-code are presented and compared with measurements. Local heat transfer results are used as an input in the numerical modelling of residual stresses using Ansys. It is not yet clear that can we predict on the basis of residual stress variation the degree of anisotropy until on- going experimental verification is ready.

Haze, Anisotropy, Clarity and Interference Effects (HACI) evaluation
Stage 5

We are developing a method of evaluation of Haze, Anisotropy, Clarity and Interference effects (HACI) in large panels of glass. As manufacturer and supplier of monolithic, laminated and insulated glass panels to the high-end retail and business markets, we often produce larger panels that must use heat-treated components, ionoplast interlayer and multi-layer assemblies. This invariably produces HACI. All these phenomena are observable but deemed inevitable physical properties and inherent to manufacturing. We want to offer higher quality products and believes that we can better those aspects. However, there are no instrument on the market to qualify and quantify HACI on large pieces of glass. Optical characteristics of AGNORA’s glass will be measured and quantified using a combination of accurate positioning, special lighting and custom-developed camera-based computer data acquisition system that detects both transmitted and reflected light, records and puts numbers to the level of unwanted artifacts. This first step will allow for a numerical, parametric identification of the issue. Our goal is to establish a numerical model that will reflect the severity of the different HACI factors. This will require interaction with customers to quantify the acceptable levels.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Automating flat glass tempering process
Stage 5

n the past 10 years flat glass tempering process has taken relatively slow paced steps towards process automation. A  handful of fully automated process have been done, however the technology is not yet suitable for meeting the needs of average glass processor who delivers glass to architectural segment. The emerging technologies related to data collection, data analysis and integrated intelligence are already available and will change the pace of development. We see already now a very fast development for the next three years regarding tempering process automation. This presentation goes through the current automation levels of tempering furnaces and presents the required steps for automating flat glass tempering process.

Thermally Processed Glass: Correlation Between Surface Compression, Mechanical and Fragmentation Test
Stage 5

The paper correlates the data recorded in Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, during qualification tests. The aim of the research is to define a correlation between the following parameters in toughened and strengthened glass: bending strength tested according EN 1288-3; fragmentation tested according EN 12150; surface compression stress tested according ASTM 1279. Also thermally strengthened glass data were considered, whereas it is not possible in term of fragmentation due to the different crack path (“island” fragments instead of small fragments). The research is the development of the previous ones carried out at Stazione Sperimentale Vetro (2005-2011), focused mainly on the correlation between surface compression stress and bending strength, introducing the fragmentation parameter. In the present research those experimental data are increased (up to 2016) and the correlation is extended also to enamelled glass. The correlation between surface compression stress and mechanical strength and fragmentation is relevant for the manufacturer, who may use surface pre-stress measurement as a means of product control.

ASTM E1300 Uniform Load Strength Reduction Factor not Required for Ceramic Enameled Glass
Stage 5

Results of highly publicized testing have shown that in some cases, the mean strength of freshly manufactured ceramic enameled glass is less than the mean strength of analogous uncoated glass. Therefore, it has been proposed that a strength reduction factor be incorporated into ASTM E1300 “Standard Practice for Determining Load Resistance of Glass in Buildings” for the design of ceramic enameled glass. Test results presented herein show that while the mean strength of freshly manufactured enameled glass appears to be reduced, the coefficient of variation is also reduced. It is shown herein that the reduction in the coefficient of variation coupled with the fact that ASTM E1300 is based on the reduced strength of in-service glass combine to compensate for the apparent reduction of the mean strength of freshly manufactured enameled glass. These results show that there is no need to incorporate a ceramic enamel glass strength reduction factor in ASTM E1300 for this specific case. The use of ceramic enameled glass is a complicated topic that will require more in-depth research before changes to ASTM E1300 should be made.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Proven Roller Stability in Advanced Tempering Process
Stage 5

Tempering furnaces are creating severe thermal and chemical environmental conditions in order to develop the necessary environment for the glass prior to quenching. The constant evolution of glasses and quality standards, in architectural, automotive and solar industry the search for always more performance became a permanent challenge for the complete furnace engineering. Highest quality standards and long term stability of the treatment, drives the selection of all moving pieces capable to address global quality of the end product. Process controls and maintenance are adapted to the general capability of the rollers. Long performance should be discussed based on stability of the furnace compounds over the expected periods of service. Changes in rollers physical and chemical characteristics have been demonstrated through viscoplastic analysis and high temperature mechanical environment to create the more stable conditions for driving the glass for maximum control of the tempering in different glass configuration. Association of mechanical driving systems and ceramic stability through the furnace service are conducting to the roll dynamic rigidity while absorbing required operational changes generated by today market demand. Weibull analysis, mechanical torque and viscoelasticity of the roll function have been investigated in real field conditions over a year.

The Importance of an Integrated Software ERP Solution in The Glass Processing Industry
Stage 5

A completely integrated software ERP solution in a modern glass processing plant is essential to achieve complete automation. Only by closing the gaps between machinery and software and by eliminating island solutions an efficient flow can be achieved. Complete automation is making factories smarter and requires constant innovation, which is the process of making something better by use of new original ideas, mainly in software technology. Through that new form of automation software control systems are applied to reduce labor, increase raw material usage and improve quality by repeatable work methods. This process is changing the landscape of manufacturing. Modern and fully integrated software solutions furthermore coordinate the activity of the islands of automation created by the many talented machinery and system vendors. By deeply integrating and inter-connecting machinery and software in a factory a complete view of materials, status of all processes can be available to anyone, at any time.

Critical issues in glass chemical strengthening
Stage 5

In structural glazing applications a growing attention is reserved to glass chemical strengthening by ion exchange. Superior optical quality and no limitations in thickness and shapes are the most appealing characteristics of this strengthened glass together with significantly higher level of surface compression that can be introduced by ion exchange. Drawbacks related to consistency of strength either initially and during service life will be discussed, crack initiation tendency will be discussed in connection to glass chemical composition for both soda lime silicate and Sodium aluminosilicate glass. Processing drawbacks related to glass surface chemical attack together with effects on glass strengthening performances due to salt bath contamination will be discussed.

29.06.2017

30.06.2017

Sessions
Architectural Challenges & Solutions
Complex Geometry; Coatings Technology and Applications
Facade Contractor’s Forum; IGU & Window Technology
Laminated Glass
Market Trends; Glass in Transportation
Smart Glazing; Architect Forum
Locations
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
Stage 6
09:00
09:30
10:00
10:30
11:00
11:30
12:00
12:30
13:00
13:30
14:00
14:30
15:00
15:30
16:00
16:30
17:00
Architectural Challenges & Solutions
Architectural Challenges & Solutions
Architectural Challenges & Solutions
Sustainable Facade Design for Glazed Buildings in a Blast Resilient Urban Environment
Stage 4

In facade constructions the glazed elements have always been considered the most critical components for the minimization of hazards during a blast event. In today’s blast events terrorists have changed their mode of action and targets where the glass performance have become even more of a concern. Therefore counter-terrorism offices (such as in the UK) have been introducing design guidelines for crowded places, making a compromise between safety and sustainability. This paper describes how it is possible to achieve a resilient urban environment, where glass is still the dominant element of the architectural scope making use of glazed facade systems with excellent blast protection performances. Novel façade systems have recently been developed by means of dedicated simulation techniques. The numerical tools recognize, enhance and balance the already existing façade capacity to resist the blast loads and take into account the fundamental dynamic interactions between all façade elements. In this way, innovative façade components have been developed which have the ability to upgrade even conventional glass facade systems to high blast protection levels

Glass Appearances - Expectations Regarding a Material, Driving Projects and Upcoming Solutions
Stage 4

Glass is one of the oldest artificial building materials. Recent developments and research works in the last twenty years made glass to one of the most advanced building materials. Current projects are showing glass in different applications. Flat and curved, with solar control coatings, with enamels to address different idea of design and so on. But working with a material like glass needs detailed knowledge about its aesthetical and technical parameters. This paper should show theses expectations about a material at different projects in terms of material bases, development, production and the criteria regarding the acceptance of any deviations.

Structural Silicone Glazing: Life Expectancy of more than 50 Years?
Stage 4

Structural Silicone Glazing (SSG) is a curtain walling method that utilizes silicone sealants to adhere glass, ceramic, metal or composite panels to supporting framing members by means of a peripheral adhesive joint. In SSG curtain walls, silicone sealants serve not only as a weather seal, but also act as a structural bonding element, eliminating the need for exterior retainers and covers. The paper discusses some essential findings of two recent research studies on the durability and service life of structural silicone glazing sealants and structures. The first study demonstrates, that specimens of a first generation 2-part silicone sealant taken from a SSG façade after 23+2 years of real life successfully passed the European ETAG002-1 performance criteria for residual strength. In a second study, a new performance-based durability test method was developed in partnership with the Federal Institute for Materials Research Berlin/Germany (BAM). This method is based on simultaneously exposing system test specimens to artificial weathering and complex, multiaxial mechanical loadings. 2-part Structural Silicone sealants of the first and of the second generation where subjected to this test, which is considered to correspond to an anticipated service life of 50 years.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Silicone Opacifiers for Spandrel Glass Applications: Risk Mitigation in Thermal Stresses
Stage 4

Curtain wall design commonly uses insulating glass units for spandrel glazing to provide better visual harmony between vision and spandrel areas. Risks with this approach include higher thermal stresses, especially when low-emissivity coatings are used, and increased chance of spontaneous breakage by nickel sulfide inclusions if fully tempered glass is used to control thermal stress. The thermal stress control benefit of heat treated glass is reduced if a ceramic enamel opacifier is applied (with a strength reduction of up to 40%) causing a number of breakage incidences with heat-strengthened spandrels. Silicone coatings have been examined as a solution to prevent strength reduction in all heat treated glass when applied as a spandrel opacifier. Ring-on-ring, 4-point bending and ball drop testing were used to investigate the flexural strength of coated annealed, heat-strengthened and fully tempered glass. Silicone coatings have no adverse effect on the flexural strength of the substrate and, in some instances, improve it. These coatings also provide fallout protection in accordance with ASTM C1048. This suggests using a silicone spandrel opacifier on heat treated glass could greatly reduce the risk of spandrel glass breakage and reduce risk of injury from fallout if.

Structural glass sandwich panels
Stage 4

To provide stiffness, shading and privacy with daylight and a feeling of openness for restaurant extensions and an entrance canopy to a London hotel, we used glass sandwich panels with aluminium honeycomb core. Similar construction had been used on smaller scale for interior decorative panels and for some interior floor panels. Exterior glass sandwich panels need durable strength and stiffness with continuing clarity, so we developed a detailed set of tests and acceptance criteria for all aspects of the appearance and performance of the panels with a specialist façade contractor. The panels were over twice the area of previous examples and too large for the established sandwich panel manufacturers so the contractor developed a new production method. When sealed sandwich panels are exposed to the weather, they experience changes of pressure in the entrained air, so need to be allowed to equalise. We proposed to ventilate the panels through canisters of silica gel desiccant to dry incoming air sufficiently to avoid condensation. The technique is commonly used to condition the expansion airspace above oil in electrical transformers and gearboxes but was not known in the glazing industry. The technique has wide potential for façade applications.

Tall self-supporting Load Bearing Glass Structures
Stage 4

This paper will go through some historic development in load bearing glass structures with the focus on recentry completed 8 storey high, 28 tall self-supporting lift shaft enclosure for the residential property in Knightsbridge, London. The glass structure, which believed to be tallest self-supporting annealed glass structure in the world, comprised of curved laminated vertically stacked glass cylinder of 1.4m diameter terminating with openable semi-circle roof lights as well as cylindrical roof top structure.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Counter Selective Glazing for a Passive Building Concept
Stage 4

Exploring facade options for maximizing passive comfort from a thermal, glare and acoustic perspective lead to a dynamic facade concept with a highly unusual glazing approach. For a large restoration project in the San Francisco Bay Area, the multidisciplinary Arup design team identified the ideal glazing product to be selective towards infrared light transmission. The glazing was to maximize transmission in the infrared spectrum to utilize passive solar gains whilst controlling the visual spectrum for glare comfort. The façade concept features internal louvers control of unwanted heat gain during midday in summer and autumn. Glas Troesch assisted the team with technical expertise and developed a series of unique samples that investigate different coating approaches with ‘IR-selectivity’ and indicate an economic way to realize a large scale project with such a novel glazing approach.

La Maison Des Fondateurs? Load Bearing Interlocking Glass Spiral as Building Structure
Stage 4

La Maison des Fondateurs in Le Brassus Switzerland, will represent the watch making manufacture Audemars Piguet. Audemars Piguet stands for the finest quality, precision as well as innovation based on traditional watchmaking expertise and craftsmanship. La Maison des Fondateurs has been developed from a competition proposal to the execution project by the architects BIG-Bjarke Ingels Group. The created interlocking all glass spiral evolves the building volume out of the rough, natural landscape providing a perfect linear museum path for the building program. Despite the severe loading and weather conditions, inspired by the high values of Audemars Piguet the project team designed the building to the technical limits. The curved and very large insulated façade glass units as well as the curved glass partition walls of the interlocking glass spiral are forming the load bearing structure. All vertical and horizontal loads are transferred by these glasscomponents making solid columns and shear wall obsolete. The article reflects the close collaboration of the designers, engineers, specialist contractor and industry. The global structural concept, transfer of the concentrated point loading into the curved structuralglass element as well as the structuralbonding beyond standards and the context of energy efficiency are discussed and elaborated.

The Crystal Rainbow Effect - Prismatic Glass Design Facades
Stage 4

Is it possible to transfer large scale vision glass areas into crystallized chandelier facades, turning natural sunlight into fascinating optical interactions between facade responsiveness, cycle and solar altitude? Light changes speed as it moves from one medium to another. This change in speed causes the light to be refracted. In glass, refracted light which leaves a medium at different angles becomes visible in a rainbow color spectrum. Ornamental glass has a long history in architectural facades. Cast- and kiln-formed glass is being used as a decorative element and for architectural features. Those glass elements usually show rough surface conditions which diffuses light and makes refraction hardly possible. Consequently, the spectral color effect fails to happen. This paper explains the approach and execution of engineering and manufacturing a handcrafted chandelier-like crystal prism facade for the luxury Baccarat-Hotel in NYC. From using single glass elements, merging them together in custom processed sequences to form an external facade, fulfilling not only highest architectural aesthetic standards, but structural requirements at the same time. It’s a masterpiece of art and engineering which shows the use of prismatic glass in exterior architecture, supported by other examples thorough the City of New York.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Challenging Project Development with Implementation of Innovative AR Coating
Stage 4

Opera House Dubai design intent was to create a unique building in its appearance that is similar in to traditional sailing vessel of the Arabian Gulf. The objective of the internal non reflective coating is to ensure that features outside of the Opera House at night can be viewed within the Opera House without nuisance reflections. The development of this project together with Guardian team allowed us to find the best solution of DGU, where in combination with High Selective solar control glass with Clarity range glass, light reflection was reduced up to 6% internally, and 7% externally. This project was a challenge and innovation in architectural glass solutions at the same time, since antireflective glass from both sides coated in jumbo size was used for the first time in a façade.

TBA
Stage 4

TBA
Stage 4

Complex Geometry; Coatings Technology and Applications
Complex Geometry; Coatings Technology and Applications
Complex Geometry; Coatings Technology and Applications
The consequences of panelisation on visual inconsistency of curved glazed facades
Stage 3

Increasingly designers produce inspirational building images with seamless curved façades. The challenge is providing a visually consistent glazed façade allowing views out and light in with minimal distortion and interference. This study aimed to identify factors influencing panelisation of curved glazed façades, the subsequent impact on visual consistency and finally how quality may be improved. It illustrated that architectural division/panelisation for a curved façade can be achieved in different ways: triangulating flat elements; cold bending by forced or laminated methods or hot bending by radial or slump formed processes. The study appraised current specification methods and processes for production of flat and bent glass. This highlighted omissions and inconsistencies in standards/guidelines and inadequate visual assessment criteria. Defects/attributes for different glass and bending types vary and this can lead to visual inconsistency if different types are used simultaneously. Case studies illustrate the challenges. A pilot survey to industry and designers was used to reaffirm the issues. A preliminary design roadmap was subsequently devised for informing design decisions. Finally, outline proposals for future investigations and studies to improve the overall specification, production and visual assessment of bent glass and curved glass buildings are identified.

Approaching Curved Annealed Glass
Stage 3

Contemporary architectural designs of transparent building skins with curved geometries challenge the industry. Approaches using geometry rationalization in combination with planar glazing, cold bent glazing or warm bent curved glass are coupled with geometry constraints and not always architecturally desired. Warm bent annealed glass opens up additional freedom in design especially more and biaxial curvature in the building skin’s glazing. The paper will provide an overview of the currently applied engineering approach applied in the industry for curved warm bent glass in the absence of standards and codes. Design specifics of warm bent annealed glass applications will be highlighted and test results shown. It is an experience report of how innovative annealed curved glass applications can be realized with the currently available knowledge of research projects, engineering tools and project specific testing.

Integral design: free geometry, hybrid construction
Stage 3

In this presentation the description of two principal façade elements of one of the most interesting buildings in these days – the new Swatch Headquarter in Switzerland – shall lead to a principle reflection about constructional integration. The elements are made of wooden frames, ETFE foils, polycarbonate plates, triplelayer glass and cold bended glass. Differential and integrated constructions are not in concurrence. Looking at them from a theoretical point of view they depend on each other in a circular alteration. The integrated construction can be identified by its values of the result compared to an addition of the characteristics of the independent elements. Integration means to gain value. “Simple additions/stratification” describes a differential approach. The features of the single elements are added, not yet integrated. We are looking at problems in a differential way as long as we don’t understand them in its totality. This often correlates with functional innovations demanding narrow border conditions. The sister and brother of integration are digitalization and modularization. Complexity demands on better planning tools and a better information chain between the computer model and the production facility. And in the case of this project, complexity demands for quality, quality of prefabrication and modularization.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Free-Form Cold-Bent Façades and All-Glass Structures - Design and Value Engineering Challenges
Stage 3

Façade designers are becoming increasingly under fire from several sides – current architecture is pushing for more complex curved and all-glass structures, a lack of design codes for certain areas causing the need for in-depth research and testing, and clients pushing for cost effective simplified details avoiding single or limited source supply. This paper presents detailed technical background for two recent projects – a series of all-glass boxes and a free-form shape cold-bent structural silicone glazed façade. For the all-glass boxes, detailed structural models helped to assess new ways achieving global lateral stability and stress reduction, as well as value engineering considering limitations of local glass processing capabilities. For the free-form shape cold-bent structural silicone glazed façade, design assisted by testing and a unique structural silicone design method with hyperelastic material constitutive modelling was used due to lack of internal design codes or standards. Similar to the GPD paper presented by the author at GPD 2015, this paper intends to kick-off new design concepts for the silicone design of two-way curved cold-bent facades, serving as a basis for discussion within the community of façade professionals.

Structural Silicon Joints in Cold-bent SSG units
Stage 3

Use of cold-bent or warped glass units in unitized curtain walling has been getting a state-of-the-art application for the last years. This makes special demands on an appropriate design of glass units and frame members as well as on the elastic and load-bearing bonding joints in Structural Sealant Glazing applications. Depending on the approach of producing and installing these units as well as the geometrical boundary conditions the structural silicone joints are going to be affected by additional permanent load reactions and joint movements next to regular loading. Due to the warped or curved shape of the units significant changes in load distribution, load sharing and stiffness can result and even load peaks in the elastic silicone joints can arise. This paper shall summarize technical requirements and engineering rules as well as design aspects enabling appropriate design and calculation of structural silicone joints in cold-bent SSG units. Reflecting a reliable safety concept and the expected life cycle of these load-bearing bonding joints is part of the approach.

Chaoyang Park Plaza Tower: Design and Construction of complex geometry façade
Stage 3

Concerns over global warming and climate change have been influencing every aspect of the built environment. An effective way to enhance the energy efficiency of buildings is to reduce the thermal transmission through exterior building envelopes. These new thrusts towards increased energy efficiency are providing reinvigorated impetus to develop new technologies and solutions for energy efficient exterior building envelope constructions. The proposed research initiative will focus on the development and demonstration of energy efficient building envelope solutions applicable to both existing and new buildings. We plan to conduct long term field testing and monitoring of spandrel panels utilizing new insulation technologies. Once the panels have been installed, monitoring of the thermal and hygrothermal performance will be conducted over a two year period with full exposure to actual extreme environmental and occupancy use conditions. The modified spandrel panels will utilize thin aerogel-based hybrid insulation technology and be configured in an attempt to alleviate thermal bridging issues associated with current spandrel panel design. At the end of the project, the goal is to have proven the validity of the modified spandrel panel design for use in both new and retrofitted curtain wall systems. The process, progress, and results will be discussed.

Systematically Unique Facade Geometry
Stage 3

Today’s parametric design tools allow for geometric variation throughout architectural projects, permitting the designer to manipulate i.e. an entire façade while controlling each element individually. The technical implementation of parametrically developed constructions is generally complex and demanding. Architects, engineers and fabricators are confronted with challenges of geometry, structural design, complicated detailing and varying software interfaces during design and production. With the Parametric System these problems have been addressed by developing a tested aluminium façade system based on a set of variable geometries that are parametrically adaptable and supported by a secure, dedicated digital process chain as well as embedded structural analyses and the mass customization of certain components. Keywords: parametric design, digital process, BIM, mass customization, complex geometry

Lunch
12:40 - 13:45
Stage 3

Beauty and The Beast: The Wilshire Grand’s Facade Design in LA’s Seismic Zone 4 Reality
Stage 3

Not since City Hall has a tall building truly addressed the issue of creating an iconic skyline for Los Angeles. The Wilshire Grand Tower is a building of our time, a contemporary contrast to a generation of flat top buildings composed of granite and inset windows. Fulfilling a design vision of glass in L.A.’s seismic Zone 4 environment will be examined. Offering views never seen before in downtown Los Angeles, large format glass clads the tower to maximize visible light and openness. Factors that influenced the glass selection and stack joint design will be reviewed. Reminiscent of Yosemite’s Half Dome, the 73-story tower rises above a solid podium base. Bridging between these forms is a lyrical doubly curved skylight that provides the enclosure for the central Atrium. The challenges and innovative solutions involved in achieving this parametric object will be explored. Finally, the design of the iconic Crown will be investigated. The signature top rises 10-stories above the tower’s observation deck. Wrapped in glass, the Crown completes the architectural parti while responding to G4 forces.

Structurally shaped glasses for the new library of Caen
Stage 3

The famous architectural office OMA has designed the new multimedia library of Caen, the capital of Normandy: the main feature of this building is a big central space, open as widely as possible to the magnificent surrounding landscape. An original solution has been conceived to span more than 6m without mullion by shaping the center part of the glass panels themselves, thus creating a shell behaviour and therefore inducing a great stiffness of the glass skin. A research for the optimal structural shape has been carried out, defining the precise shape of the glass. The glass panes are double glazed with argon filling, the inner glass pane being flat and thus could be treated with efficient thermal coating. Considering the huge volume of gas enclosed into the insulating glass unit cavity (around 2m3), a study of induced stress into the sealing joint by the thermal expansion of the gas has been made and proved to be acceptable. The value of the thermal performance has been also precisely evaluated by specific Computational Fluid Dynamics modelisation. The installation of glass units weigting about 2 Tons was a particularly difficult task only made possible by the use of special glass handling tools

Banco Popular HQ - Auditorium
Stage 3

The auditorium of the new headquarters of Banco Popular in Madrid consists of a large glass box with pieces of (9,5×2,6 m). Composed of two skins and glass fin with a bespoke system developed by Martifer, based on the concept of architects and consultants facade (Ayala & ENAR). It seems as an all glass facade without metallic profiles. Furthermore the assembly is very complicated because of abscene of space.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Breakthrough in Building Glass: High Energy Efficiency Coatings Through Laser Annealing
Stage 3

Next Generation of High Throughput Architectural Glass Coaters
Stage 3

The overall demand for sputter coated glass products has outpaced the demand for flat glass products for at least two main reasons: • the energy efficiency of buildings as an important decision criterion for investors, • national regulations foster the market penetration of heat insulating low emissivity (Low-E) and solar protective coatings such as Double and Triple Low-E (DLE and TLE) to reduce energy consumption and carbon footprint. Therefore the next generation of architectural glass coaters has to be upgradable to more complex coatings and higher throughput. This article will focus on the recent trend to raise throughput with a new generation of pre-vacuum pumps. These pre-vacuum pumps seem to have a similar potential in improving the pump performance and operation as the change from diffusion pumps to turbo-molecular pumps in former years.

New Solutions for Edge-Enamelling of Sputter Coatings
Stage 3

System TEA is a specific ceramic paint application, jointly developed with the enamel manufacturer Ferro, for the combination with Guardian sputter-coated architectural glass. The technology creates a very stable and uniform ceramic surface. This new process opens up opportunities to provide high performance coated glass for a number of different applications such as structural glazing, all-glass corners, glass roofs or louvre windows. The process involves the enamel being applied directly onto the coating. During subsequent heating, the enamel dissolves the sputter coating and fuses with the glass to create a very strong bond – comparable to standard enamel on float glass. After cooling, the coating is fully embedded in the enamel.

Facade Contractor’s Forum; IGU & Window Technology
Facade Contractor’s Forum; IGU & Window Technology
Facade Contractor’s Forum; IGU & Window Technology
Glass specifications for visual acceptance in architectural applications
Stage 2

Glass specifications are nowadays very project specific and are typically written by façade experts and consultants. The requirements contained therein are typically more demanding than those published in glazing industry standards and codes: this is done in order to achieve higher performance and improved visual appearance. In recent projects this resulted in several technical queries related to the finished glass product: their resolution required extensive dialogue with the glazing industry. Several methods aimed to deliver the desired and specified visual quality have been developed and are successfully used. Examples of challenges that we have tackled and that will be presented are the stripping of performance coating, the test method to assess the effect of visual distortion on curved glass, the test method to assess visual distortion on climatic pressure differences and the management of client expectations via a project specific protocol. Conversely, the current glazing industry standards, codes and guidelines should be revisited and updated to reflect the increased capabilities of the glass and façade industry, and to incorporate vital visual acceptance criteria. This should enable clients to rely on agreed industry standards and documents rather than project specific and custom made requirements.

Haute Couture for a Curtain wall: Serrated glass in façade application
Stage 2

Having new fabrication methods available the opportunity to get new materials for bespoke architectural appearance becomes reality. Serrated glass with a significant depth is possible since thicker pieces of glass can be ground. However, this is only a part of the story. It is a long way from a sample 300 x 300 mm till the curtain wall unit-dimensions about 3,6 x 3,0 m. Thick glass needs to be available in a certain quality. The grinding process needs to be up scaled. There must be a strategy for splitting in segments and afterwards matching them to one glass unit. The handling has to be tested and practiced. Transportation and packaging solutions need to be developed. Last but not least the bespoke properties of this product have to be considered during the assembly and installation of the curtain wall unit. This paper shows the individual steps from the start to installation!

Curved glass in the building skin: Case studies and lessons learned
Stage 2

Modern building skin design has been affected in recent years by the ambition to create smooth and flowing surfaces. Architectural concepts more and more have been asking for an innovative approach for curved material solutions. Thus, the use of curved glazing within façade concepts has been a frequent and challenging task for architects, engineers, façade companies and manufacturers. This presentation shows the variety of different challenges which have been faced by the project participants: curved glass as an important design and functional element of a building skin always requires very specific approaches for each individual realization. Case studies of Frener&Reifer glazed façade projects are presented to describe the individual design and realization of different curved glass solutions. Each project is characterized by individual complexity regimes and thus defined its specific issues, challenges and mode of operation. The comparison of these projects illustrates the different aspects of how to cope with issues like visual aspects, structural behaviour and production-oriented feasibility. A continuous evaluation and adjustment of the project specific requirements and the lessons learned from previously realized solutions enable to work on suitable approaches for new projects and move forward the limits of curved glass solutions.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

New Glass Dimensions: Large Glass Panes and Their Challenges in Façade Applications
Stage 2

Available glass panes are getting bigger and bigger. About 14 x 3 m is not unusual anymore. However, the glazing details don’t change in general. The dimensions of glazing rebate and gaskets stay the same. Therefore the spot where a glass pane needs to be installed gets awful tight. To compensate the thermal expansions of such big panes in the joints is also a challenging task. But not only are these details changing. Furthermore the complete handling process has to be adapted. Normal suction cups and hoisting devices often don’t do the trick anymore. Special devices need to be designed in order to install the glass panes precisely and safely. Gartner has to develop some manipulators in order to handle this kind of products efficiently. This special equipment has to be tested and optimized for its specific task and it is presented in this paper.

Fabrication Technology for Hybrid Glass Metal Panels
Stage 2

Mechanical and physical properties of Hybrid Glass Metal Panels are described by Doebbel et al.. Fabrica-tion technology and production planning are tasks, which needed additional development. The glass and metal sheets are connected by a continuous bonding layer using a silicone adhesive. This en-ables to transfer loads from the glass plies with a laminar load distribution to the metal sheet and to con-nected metal backings. The uniform opaque panels can be realized up to 3.2 x 15 meters. In order to ensure a safe and economic production process, the following objectives were thrived: – Handling and positioning of the panes for a horizontal production process  A documented cleaning process  Precise mixture and correct volume application of the adhesive  Handling and transport within the curing process  Quality control in advance, and within the production process In order to ensure a high quality result of the product, which isn’t regulated in available codes, and to enable an efficient production for approximately 25.000 sqm in a first project, an mainly automated production process were developed. The paper summarizes the fabrication methods of the panels and highlights the automated assembly. The paper concludes with an outlook of possible applications.

Glass Sandwich Facades
Stage 2

The Glass Sandwich Façade is a warm façade and consists of transparent and opaque areas. The Glass Sandwich Façade combines the opaque Glass Sandwich Panel (GSP) with conventional window and façade frame profiles. There are many different design options. Through partnerships with suppliers of façade systems, iconic skin is compatible at all the relevant interfaces. The Glass Sandwich Panel (GSP) consists of an outer printed glass sheet bonded to a standard sandwich panel. This creates a glass exterior in the form of panels up to a height of 16 m. This results in a homogeneous and flush façade surface in glass. This paper discusses research and development with a main focus on structural testing and numerical verification of the glass sandwich panel. Furthermore, it is shown how to integrate window and door elements flush with the façade surface.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:25
Stage 2

Vacuum Insulating Glass. Past, Present and Prognosis
Stage 2

This paper reviews the history and current status of Vacuum Insulating Glass (VIG), and discusses future possibilities for this technology. VIG was first described in a 1913 patent. Despite several attempts and many patents over the intervening years, the first thermally insulating experimental VIG samples were not made until 1988, at the University of Sydney. In 1994, the University and Nippon Sheet Glass (NSG Group) commenced a collaboration on VIG that is still continuing. The first commercial VIG product, Spacia, was launched by NSG Group in 1996. Several million Spacia units have now been manufactured, and have shown excellent reliability in many types of building. Current VIG designs using annealed glass can have centre-of-glazing U values below 0.6 W m -2 K -1 in a structure less than 10 mm thick. VIGs are being used in hybrid glazings and laminated assemblies. Several organisations are undertaking VIG-related research. Other commercial VIG products are in the market or under development. VIG Standards are in preparation. There is scope for significant improvements in the technology. Future possibilities include tempered glass VIGs, triple glass VIGs, alternative designs of edge seal, pillars and low E coatings, and advanced manufacturing methods.

A Novel Glass Spacer for Vacuum Insulated Glazing
Stage 2

The Vacuum Insulated Glazing (VIG) is a unique highly thermally insulating window technology, which is constructed from two panes of glass separated by a sub-millimetre evacuated gap. An array of spacers is placed between the glass panes to maintain the separation under atmospheric pressure. Even though a clear priority of the material used to produce the spacer is strength, it is also important that the thermal conductivity of the material is low, and there is a fast method of placing the spacers on the glass surface. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of a laser induced surface feature as a spacer. Direct measurements on glass samples were performed to determine the strength (with respect to lateral and transverse loads) and thermal resistance, of the features. Results clearly show that the laser induced feature is high strength and has a thermal resistance that is greater than the typical metal spacers. More importantly, there may be no need for a placement step in the VIG manufacturing process, simplifies the process significantly.

Vacuum Insulated Glazing Under the Influence of a Thermal Load
Stage 2

The Vacuum Insulated Glazing (VIG) is a highly thermally insulating flat panel that is constructed from two glass panes, separated by an evacuated sub-millimetre gap, and hermetically sealed over its perimeter. Typically, solder glass is used as the edge seal, which results in a rigid bond between the glass panes over a 4-8 mm width. In-service the VIG unit not only withstands forces resulting from atmospheric pressure, but must also survive a temperature difference (thermal load) in extreme climates as large as 40°C. The glass pane on the hot side expands and on the cold side contracts, with the panes bonded rigidly, a mechanical force over the edge seal results in a bending moment. The aim of this paper is to present how the stresses resulting in the glass panes depend on the temperature difference over the VIG, the stiffness of the edge seal, and temperature field over the panes. Both analytic solutions and finite element modelling results are discussed.

The Development of Synergy on Vacuum Glass
Stage 2

With excellent heat preservation and insulation property, Vacuum Glass can compare with wall and play a key role in building energy saving. It also has the advantage of sound insulation, lightness and thinness, being the best selection for window&door of energy saving buildings. Developed through laboratory research to industrial production, Vacuum Glass had continuous innovation and made progress. Synergy worked on the research and application of Vacuum Glass for more than ten years. This speech is going to introduce the progress situation of technology, industrialization and its practical applications for Vacuum Glass.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Laser-Grown Bumps on Window Glass
Stage 2

The process of forming bumps on window glass with an ultra-violet nanosecond laser is described. Bump growth is caused by heating the glass to temperatures above the softening point, inducing directional flow towards the surface, forming a swelling, and finally freezing the swelling to a bump. The shape of the bump is mostly determined by the surface tension of the molten glass. We show that the height of the bumps, which are typically about 180 um, can be controlled within sub-micrometer accuracy and the shape can be altered from semi-spherical to flat-top. The time required for growing a bump is on the order of a second or less. These bumps may be an alternative to the posts in the incumbent vacuum-insulated glazing designs. Advantages include: ease of placement, transparency, low thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength.

Analysis of The Uncertainties In Acoustic Of IGU: A Comparison In Between Products and Labs
Stage 2

Good acoustic insulation performance is one of the main criteria for choosing Double-Glazing-Unit (DGU) product. Thus, to determine the acoustic insulation of DGU, standardized acoustic measurements are performed by ISO10140 accredited laboratories. However, for a given DGU configuration, for instance 4(16)4, acoustic insulation measured by labs is not exactly the same. Then, a question arises: is this difference due to the product uncertainties and/or lab? This study aims at quantifying the impacts of both product and lab on the uncertainties in acoustic insulation performances. Some testing campaigns in two different labs have been performed yielding the following conclusions. Regarding the acoustic insulation of standard 4(16)4 DGUs, there is no significant influence of the production line. Moreover, DGU composition (spacers, PVB provider …) does not modify the acoustic insulation. The major source of uncertainties actually comes from the acoustic labs. Thus, some labs will be considered as measuring higher acoustic insulation of DGUs. This leads to a competitive advantage for both the acoustic labs and the DGUs sellers. In response to this risky trend, we will show how the new standard updates of EN ISO 10140 decrease the lab uncertainties in acoustic performances of DGUs.

The Development of Stainless Steel Based Warm Edge Spacer Systems
Stage 2

Stainless steel has become the preferred choice of material for quality warm edge spacer systems globally, on both plastic hybrid warm edge spacers, roll formed single material metal warm edge spacers, and more. This presentation will explore the attributes of stainless steel and why it has become so wildly popular as an integral part of most good warm edge spacer systems. A brief history of spacer systems will help explain the progression and development of insulating glass spacers towards today’s many stainless steel based warm edge spacers. Thin gauge stainless steel has come a long way in the past 20 and 30 years, allowing cost effective thermal improvements for warm edge spacer products.Stainless steel vapor barriers down to 50 microns or less are affordable today, and have become popular for use as a critical vapor barrier on many plastic or polymeric hybrid spacers. Material conductivity properties of different stainless steel types and material formulae have also been tweaked over the years for further optimization of the energy performance of spacer systems. Both rigid spacer systems and flexible spacer systems have benefited from advances in stainless steel and the adoption of this material for warm edge spacer systems.

Laminated Glass
Laminated Glass
Laminated Glass
Testing of Glass Laminates for Edge Stability
Stage 5

Laminated glass is a high performance construction material comprised of glass and polymer interlayer which is bonded together under a heat and pressure process. Laminated glass is typically subjected to performance testing meant to evaluate the capability of the material in its resistance to damage or attack. Edge delamination typically results from damage or attack originating at the edge of laminated glass where the interlayer is exposed. Edge delamination affects the aesthetics of laminated glass and may be described as a material characteristic known as edge stability. Determination of the edge stability of a laminated glass construction is complex but can be examined through various methods of test. Exposure of the laminate to moisture and chemicals, specifically at the edge, is the basis of various test protocols that result in the development of edge stability ratings. This paper presents exposure protocols including natural weathering, sealants, salt fog and immersion. Rating processes and results will be discussed for various interlayers. The attending will be familiar with the test scope, purpose and results interpretation of the included testing. This information allows the specifier to make an informed choice in selecting installation methods, system design and laminated glass products.

Edge Stability and Potential Cause of Blemishes in Laminated Safety Glass
Stage 5

The use of laminated safety glass in outdoor applications continues to increase, and as a result, questions about edge stability often arise. This is especially true where open, exposed edges are required to eliminate any sightline obstructions. Although the vast majority of laminated glass in will never experience any edge blemishes, sometimes it does happen. This paper will focus on the edge stability of PVB and ionoplast laminates and address the causes of potential blemishes.

Post-Lamination Response of Warm-Bent Laminated Glass
Stage 5

Warm-bent laminated glass is obtained by elastically curving glass plies against a constraining negative mould and by performing, in this condition, the lamination process in autoclave. After removing the constraints, the laminate holds its curved geometry because of the shear coupling from the polymeric interlayer. So curved panels are called “warm bent” to distinguish them from “cold-bent” ones, where flat glass is bent on site and restrained by a frame. An analytical study is presented to describe how, after removal of the constraints, the laminate maintains the curvature only partially, suffering an initial spring-back followed by a long-term relaxation. The model problem considered here is that of two Euler-Bernoulli beams coupled by a thin viscoelastic adhesive layer. Within a variational approach, we analytically describe the relationship between the initial constrained shape and the shape of the curved beam, which is time-dependent due to viscosity of the interlayer. Localized contacts and stress concentrations may occur, depending upon the type of profile that is initially imposed. Comparison of the cases of instantaneous or gradual release of the contact with the mould evidences a remarkable reduction of the transient state of stress in the second case.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Thermal Radiation Against Forced Convection Heating in Flat Glass Lamination Oven
Stage 5

In a flat glass laminating oven glass-film sandwiches are located on rotating rollers and conveyed through a heating chamber in a continuous flow. The PVB-film should be heated up to a temperature of 60°C, before it enters to a calender at the end of the oven. Usually heating is arranged with conventional resistors located in a heating chamber. In some ovens the heating is based on forced convection. In them hot air jets are blown toward to glass-film sandwich. Glass and PVB have low thermal conductivity. So, it takes time to transfer heat in to the inner film in a multi-film layer sandwich. The spokespersons of the radiation ovens catch of the problem and express that radiation heating helps, because the radiation penetrates through the glass is absorbed by the film. Clear and low-e coated glass-film sandwiches can be processed with a same speed, is given as an advantage of convection heating. Thus, there exists various kinds of arguments how heating should be arranged. The paper aims to stop the speculations. It shows theoretical results how various glass-film sandwiches heat up in radiation and convection ovens.

Different Methods for Testing of Adhesion On Laminated Safety Glass
Stage 5

The use of laminated safety glass instead of single glass sheets is in any case important for post-breakage behavior and for fixation of fragments. When using the compound effect on laminated safety glass the adhesion has to be fixed to a necessary value and has to be tested to fulfil different requirements. This using of the compound effect leads to a more economical design of the glass. The following paper shows the results of different possibilities of testing the adhesion of laminated safety glass. The tests are made with one sort of a polyvinyl butyral (pvb) interlayer. The results for the well-known and common pummel test are compared to a defined pull test and as well to the results of determination of the light transmission using photometric measurements. The light transmission can be correlated with the moisture content of the pvb-interlayer by using a calculation rule and a calibration curve. The calibration has to be created previous to the measurements. The comparison of the results shows a good correlation between the strength value of the pull test and the moisture content of the interlayer. Both results fit to the common pummel test results.

Which Interlayer for Which Application?
Stage 5

There is a growing number of interlayers for laminated glass aiming at meeting the evolving needs of architects and specifiers. This paper describes the different types of interlayers available and the different applications they have been developed for. It will be illustrated by project examples.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Effect of Different Sources of Interlayer Modulus Data for Glass Design: The Structural PVB Case
Stage 5

Interlayer modulus influences the stress laminated glass experiences under load. The determination of interlayer modulus data is fairly complex, and the design engineer would rely in most cases on interlayer modulus properties as determined on the foil, as published by the interlayer producers. For a structural PVB type interlayer, the modulus values of the interlayer as expressed in laminated glass, have now been determined using torsional glass laminate (360 * 1100 mm) testing. Load cases at 0 °C, 23 °C and 40 °C have been studied for durations up to one month, covering many conventional load scenarios as experienced by buildings. In addition, allowable modulus values for design for this PVB type have become available through a recent German national approval for fixed load scenarios, and more flexibly for other load scenarios, through a Prony-series approach. This paper aims to present the different type of modulus data that have recently become available in terms of conventional load scenarios, and analyze the effect of different modulus data sources on effective thickness. This allows the design engineer to make a better informed choice around modulus data used for modeling, and choose values as appropriate for specific project design.

Enhanced Structural Integrity of Laminated Glass Balustrades
Stage 5

Glass balustrades are a common application of laminated glass, wherein the glass panel acts as a structural member that is required to sustain lateral design loads as stipulated by building regulations. Rising awareness about safety related to glass usage instigated by accidents due to human impact is the driving factor for evolution of safety regulations for usage of glass in a building. Singapore building authorities look for a solution that complies with the most stringent safety criteria, that limits the induced deflection in a free standing balustrade, in all layers broken condition to a limit that is to be deemed to be safe against “fall through”. Live load testing of a balustrade laminated with Ionomer interlayer done with a leading railing system supplier concluded that the glass balustrade can be designed for sustaining the design loads in pre-breakage and post breakage scenarios, thus providing a very high redundancy in balustrade design

On The Causes of Optical Defects in Laminated Glass
Stage 5

The development of visual defects, such as bubbles, local delamination, cloudiness and discoloration in laminated glass are unwanted phenomena that negatively affect the visual quality of a laminate but do not affect its structural safety. These defects can arise due to numerous influences during the production of a laminate and/or can be triggered during its lifetime. To get a better understanding of the defect formations, several laminated glass specimens were deliberately produced erroneously to promote these unwanted phenomena. Subsequently, the specimens were subjected to durability tests such that the link between a production fault, a triggering mechanism and the resulting defect pattern could be investigated. The tests are conducted on laminates with a PVB interlayer.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Exciting Architectural Case Studies from All Around the World
Stage 5

The presentation aim to share how the new interlayers developments fit with the new construction challenges. Specifically in the field of safety, security, decorative and sound dumping issues. There is a growing number of interlayers for laminated glass aiming at meeting the evolving needs of architects and specifiers. This presentation describes thru some case studies which interlayers have been adopted in according to the specific requirements of these iconic projects. How those interlayers expand design possibilities, raise safety standards, provide new solutions. Standard PVB is still used in more than 70% of the application. It’s primary function is to enhance safety or security performance of the glazing and at the same time improve the acoustic and UV protection performance in single and double glazed units. In the last years were developed structural Interlayers which are basically divided into 2 families: Inoplast interlayer, Stiff PVB (low plasticizer) which increased even more the design possibilities.

Architectural Acoustic Glazing
Stage 5

Tranquility is an important element for our well-being in everyday life. When it comes to architectural sound insulation, achieving indoor quietness can be a challenge, especially for urban areas with dense population and heavy street traffic. In buildings, windows are generally more susceptible to noise penetration than other partitions because of their lower surface mass. Fortunately, engineered interlayers in laminated glass can effectively dampen sound propagation and reduce the overall sound transmission. In this paper, the technology involved in acoustic glazing will be presented from a physics perspective. The physical processes of sound transmission through solid panels will be reviewed and the technical approaches to enhance sound transmission loss of laminated glass will be discussed. Lab tests as well as numerical simulations have been conducted in order to optimize the construction for architectural acoustic glazing. Results will be reviewed to evaluate the dependence of sound transmission loss on interlayer properties, glass-interlayer composition and overall geometrical structure of the laminate.

Recent developments of laminating films as contribution for energy efficient buildings and facades
Stage 5

The reduction of greenhouse gases is one of the most important goals of the international climate policy. Today, roughly one third of all greenhouse gas emissions is created by buildings. Modern architecture is focusing on new solutions to energy-efficient buildings. Nowadays, it is possible to harvest solar energy by building integrated photovoltaics. Furthermore, heat exchange systems by use of smart windows are used to actively control the climate conditions in the buildings. Such technologies require high demands on the glass structures which can be achieved by new material combinations. New approaches from recent developments of Folienwerk Wolfen GmbH and it´s scientific partners offer the possibility to match these requirements. The presentation will focus on the effect of the crosslinking of polymeric laminating films on the performance of laminated glass structures. Mechanical and safety properties under hard climate conditions, compatibility of the laminating films to chemicals as well as life-time stability of the glass structures and the final products will be discussed. Furthermore, some new glass structures for the achievement of the requirements will be introduced.

Market Trends; Glass in Transportation
Market Trends; Glass in Transportation
Market Trends; Glass in Transportation
USA: Market Trends and Drivers
Stage 6

This presentation will cover an overview of the North American drivers for the glass industry, such as building codes and standards. There will also be a portion on current market trends for the industry.

Minimum energy performance requirements for window replacement in the 28 EU member states
Stage 6

In the European Union, Member States are allowed to set minimum performance requirements to construction products available on their market. It is preferred not to have EU wide performance requirements, so that individual Member States regulate such performance individually taking into account their own building stock and climate specificities. In Member States that have correctly and timely implemented the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) (2010) there are requirements related to the energy performance (holistic approach) of new buildings and buildings receiving major renovation. This should in theory be complemented by prescriptive energy performance requirements for building components with a very strong influence on the energy performance of the whole structure, such as windows. In 2017, the European Union reviews the EPBD which represents an opportunity to assess the stat-of-play in the Member States and eventually propose measures to improve the assessment of the energy performance of windows in national schemes. A study for Glass for Europe provides a clear picture of the minimum requirements for window replacement in the residential sector across the different member states and reflects on if/how the European framework could be improved to further support the Member States with additional guidance.

Applicability of design thinking to the construction industry
Stage 6

Customer relationship management (CRM) seems to work only for marketing people but not over the all organization. The aim of the paper to apply design thinking to the construction industry via recent case studies. Design thinking, first used to make unique products, is now being applied to complex, intangible issues, such as how a customer experiences a service and in company strategy. A company-wide focus on it offers good opportunities for humanizing technology and for developing emotionally resonant services. A collaborative design-thinking may solve several supply chain problems such compatibility of components, right information and good communication. The first case tackles a change of a heating system (€20k) in a private house. The delivery took four years. The supplier delivered equipment designed for floor heating which caused noisy radiators. Finally, when the dealer’s mechanic came to assembly the additional tank he had wrong diagrams with him. New components were not compatible for four-year old unit. No user education was given ever. The customer had to call back several times. The communication between the supplier and dealer was extremely poor. The other cases deal also situations

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

Digitalization in the Glass
Stage 6

Consistent, end-to-end digitalization in the glass industry ensures lasting success. Operating data can be effectively generated, collected and used. Glass plants need to be rigorously optimized in order to permanently lower their operating costs. A digital twin can be used to test plant sections prior to commissioning and to optimize the overall plant during operation. This approach sustainably increases your plant’s productivity and availability.

The Past, Present and Future of Glass Fabrication
Stage 6

Preparing for the future begins with understanding the past and a realistic view of the present. This presentation will take a look at how glass fabrication has changed and its relationship to the industrial revolution. A critical look at the present will show how far we have come as an industry and reveal how far yet we have to go to become truly efficient and find success in an ever changing world. Understanding the past and present while considering demographics, market dynamics and technology will provide a view into the future.

Coatings Glass market. Russia, Far East, Turkey & Middle east - ICCG
Stage 6

The "Internet of Things" in Glass Processing
Stage 6

The glass processing of tomorrow will organize its ordering, production, and delivery processes by itself and optimize continuously with each process step. This includes production-related dynamic cost calculation, autonomous production planning, and predictive maintenance, as well as self-organizing dynamic production. For dynamic automatic cost calculation, cost information from all phases and areas can be collected, prepared, and made available to production planning and controlling in structured fashion, so that production planning can concentrate better on its core tasks. Predictive maintenance makes a significant contribution to better production planning, longer machine run times, and greater availability of the machines. Maintenance intervals are no longer specified, but rather oriented according to individual wear and actual need. In self-organizing production, processing machines are not permanently assigned; instead, through communication, the workpiece finds the suitable machine that is available fastest for its processing state for the next processing step. The requirement for this is continuous traceability of the overall process, from order to production and dispatch, on through to installation of the finished product. In the end, intelligent self-service Business Intelligence tools serve to aggregate, analyze, and display multiple data from heterogeneous, incompatible sources. The speaker will show how these Smart Factory processes can be made usable in an integrated software solution for the flat glass industry.

Lunch
12:15 - 13:45
Stage 5

Developing New Technologies with Vehicle Manufacturers
Stage 6

There seems to be a growing interest in integration of several functions in to one component in vehicles, thus leading in to improved performance and driver/passenger user experiense. One area where this can be acchieved in moderns IoT-world, are transparent displays and LED-matrix displays within the glasses. These glasses can then be used to provide required information to driver / passengers in real time. Integration with vehicle systems and operating environment are future trends and these displays are enabling us to support these trends.

In Glass Laminated Displays (For Special Vehicles)
Stage 6

Transparent thin film electroluminescent displays offer more than 80% transparency in the visible range, i.e., window-like transparency. They can be applied as stand-alone displays, or HUDs, but also as in-glass or on-glass laminated displays. In-glass lamination comprises laminating a display, e.g., between two larger panes of glass, thus creating a glazing unit with a transparent display integrated into it. This glazing unit can be the windshield of a work vehicle or coach, the bridge window or cabin porthole of a vessel and the window of many more applications. In-glass laminated transparent displays offer a unique entry point to display design, the human-machine-interface and product differentiation. The design can be customized in terms of shape, size and content. The HMI is substantially enhanced by adding display content to the line-of-sight, without jeopardizing situational awareness of, e.g., a vehicle driver or crane operator. In other words, critical data can be brought to the attention of an operator, without the operator losing visual contact with what he is doing. This is easily seen as a safety feature, which gives the innovation an even stronger role in decisions of implementation.

Energy Efficiency of Different Windscreen Bending Furnaces
Stage 6

Energy efficiency is one of the key criteria when considering investment in new processing equipment. The global trend towards sustainable and environmental friendly solutions increase steadily energy price. This affects windshield producer in 2 ways: the energy efficiency of the processing equipment itself is becoming increasingly important. Secondly, energy saving features of the product itself set new requirements on the processing technologies. The most energy-intensive part of the windscreen production is the bending process. The energy consumption of the whole windshield forming process depends on a variety of factors: on the furnace, glass, mold as well as the process. Once the furnace and it’s construction has been chosen, there is little what can be done to improve its efficiency. Therefore the features and solutions, which improve energy efficiency must be considered when designing the equipment. On the other hand, much can be done to improve the efficiency of the tooling and process itself. The best result can be achieved by using a variety of different measures. This presentation explains the energy consumption of different type of furnace and different measures, which can be used to improve energy efficiency in the current production.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

Patented Moiré Optical Distortion Measurement Supports Evolution of Automotive Glass
Stage 6

The production requirements for automotive glazing have increased in complexity in recent years. Along with safety, now functional and aesthetic aspects have become the main focus for car manufacturers. Among these are flawless reflective abilities, which contribute to quality impression, safe driving, which requires a clear, undistorted view, and technological upgrades, like well-functioning head-up displays. The continued pursuit for the highest level of quality requires glass producers to maintain control of the optical abilities of their products. The presented technology is an integrated, robust and highly accurate online Moiré based system, achieving reliable optical distortion measurement throughout the entire production process, regardless of thickness or glass color. On top of its proven defect detection capability, the inspection system provides results in Diopter and Zebra values, enabling improved quality grading and allowing for a comprehensive process analysis. The detection of cords, reams, zip lines, as well as monitoring the batch’s homogeneity by observing its optical power variation, allows for the optimization of the hotend process. Early recognition of draw lines supports monitoring the correct top-roller adjustment at the tin bath. Overall, manufactures ensure the best processes and delivery of defect-free float glass with certified optical quality.

New Possibilities for Windshield Bending
Stage 6

Complex geometries, tight bending radii are challenging the producer of auto and bus windshields. Existing technologies like dry powder application with various technologies (roller applicators and nozzle applicators) or wet powder applications with different technology (spray nozzles direct and indirect) are limiting today’s windshield design and production. A new application without the existing disadvantages helps the windshield producer to realize the car designers ideas. The new interleaving application method and material will revolutionize the windshield bending.

New Era in Digital Printing On Glass
Stage 6

Digital printing technology combined with ceramic ink has made significant progress in recent years enabling to cross the speed and quality barriers which could not be achieved in the past. Dip Tech, being the leader in developing digital printing machinery and ceramic inks for the flat glass industry, have mastered the latest technology and developed a fast printing platform which challenges the conventional screen printing technique. Now more then ever digital printing offers an attractive alternative for the automotive, furniture and appliance production lines which manufactures in large batches. In the presentation Dip Tech will review the key technology elements which enabled developing the new platform and share the parameters which turns it into a cost efficient solution for fast production lines currently using screen printing.

Smart Glazing; Architect Forum
Smart Glazing; Architect Forum
Smart Glazing; Architect Forum
Smart Glazings -Lessons from the Past 25 years for Future Technologies and Market Trends
Stage 1

The role of glass in buildings has evolved dramatically over the last 25 years with greater performance demands placed on its design and operation in buildings. Low-E glazings now dominate markets, with still better insulating glazings commercially available. As architects and owners design even larger glass areas for light and view, the performance challenges from cooling loads and glare increase. Industry responded with static spectrally selective glass to reduce solar gain but provide daylight and these now dominate market offerings. However no static coating can serve all needs. The holy grail for optimizing energy, comfort and view is a “smart” glazing whose properties are dynamically controlled across a wide range. The underlying research and early smart glass prototypes were demonstrated over 25 years ago, and viable products are now commercially available and compete with motorized shading. But smart glass products have captured only niche markets to date. We outline these past market and performance trends in the context of the next 25 years of development, with competing coating and shading technologies, the logistics of integration with other building systems and the challenges to deliver and maintain proper operations over a range of climate conditions, and building and user requirements.

Liquid Crystal Window Technology? Crystal Clear Vision for Architecture
Stage 1

Advanced LCD materials and high-quality LC-mixtures are suitable for turning future applications and ideas into reality such as the Liquid Crystal Window technology. Liquid Crystal Window modules are glass panes with a layer of liquid crystals that change light transmittance or switch to private state. When low voltage is applied, the liquid crystal material switches in a fraction of a second. This switching process influences not only light transmission, but also the overall energy transmittance of the glazing. LCW technology can dynamically regulate the influx of light, reduce overheating and glare as well as change from transparent to opaque, in various applications. Principles of the functionality, the manufacturing process and future developments are discussed. The technology is platform based and offers various opportunities for architectural, automotive and transportation applications. Case studies give ideas of opportunities using Liquid Crystal Windows in installations in the field and pilot projects and show how the technology development is done in exchange with architects, façade planners and all players along the value chain fostering the market introduction together and achieving a faster market penetration.

Electrochromic Glass? Ready for Market Break Through
Stage 1

During the last couple of years the electrochromic technology has gone from a futuristic dream to a commercially available technology, improving comfort and energy efficiency in buildings. European and American companies have made great technological progress and now product performance and durability meet the market requirements. Increased focus on intelligent buildings, energy savings, indoor comfort and sustainability has created an excellent opportunity, not only for manufacturers of electrochromic dynamic glass but for the whole glass industry as such. The market for electrochromic dynamic glass for windows, facades and roofs in buildings has now started its growth journey. Will it live up to the expectations? The presentation will give an introduction to the electrochromic technology, -how it works and more importantly the sustainable benefits of improving energy savings and comfort in new and existing buildings. Future product development paths will be presented such as applications outside architecture.

Coffee break
10:15 - 11:00
Stage 5

The Potential of Structured Switchable Glazing
Stage 1

Resulting from the research conducted over the past decades various types of switchable glazing are now available to regulate the input of natural light and energy into buildings. These types of glazing are based on electrochromic, theromochromic or photochromic materials, others use suspended particles, micro-slat foils or liquid crystals. Currently the transparency and thereby the g-value of those windows are controlled as a whole, or if segmented, as larger units of the window area. The total potential of adaptive glazing may only be achieved if they are segmented into small, individual and independently controllable units, so-called pixels. This allows for adjusting the transparency to control overall energy- and light flux into rooms according to illumination needs independently from glare protection. Glare prevention may be achieved by only spot-wise tinting of the appropriate smaller areas of the window. This paper will show the efficiency of liquid crystal based structured glazing as the result of tests conducted in two rooms of an experimental façade test building equipped with such a sub-structured glazing.

Smart glazing and adaptive facades: what can we simulate?
Stage 1

The integration of smart glazing and adaptive façade in buildings can lead to large performance improvements and added functionality compared to conventional static building envelope systems. This is achieved not only by embedding automatic/controllable (smart/active) switchable materials into the building envelope, but also including intelligence into the way the whole building is operated. During the design process, a vast amount of time is spent on understanding the performance achievable with these novel technologies. Desk studies and Building Performance Simulation can be used to support the design process or these technologies and of the building integrating them. Although BPS tools traditionally lag behind the development of novel technologies and adaptive building envelope systems. In this work we outline the main requirements for BPS of adaptive facades and of smart glazing. These include user interface, models available, integration of physical domains, integration and customisation of control strategies, interaction with building services, interoperability with CAD and generative tools. We analyse possible BPS tools that could be used and their main advantages and drawbacks, and describe the latest advances for more integrated simulation methodologies and tools.

Dynamic Glazing
Stage 1

This presentation will give an overview of dynamic glazing technologies based on liquid crystals, suspended particles and electrochromics that are being adopted in architectural and automotive applications. Polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) based windows switch very fast within few hundred milliseconds, have high contrast but suffer from high haze, high voltage, high power and no heat blocking capability making them unsuitable for external architectural window applications. PDLC technology is primarily used for privacy windows. Suspended particle (SPD)technology switches fast in a few seconds, has good contrast but requires high voltage and high power with some heat blocking capability. SPD has made significant inroads into automotive market (especially dynamic sunroof) but has limited success in architectural markets. Electrochromic technology (EC) switches at low voltage, consumes very little power, has low haze and good contrast but switches slowly making them unsuitable for automotive and wearable applications. EC windows have excellent heat blocking capability making them preferable for architectural applications especially for outside windows. High cost and slow switching speeds are limiting adoption rate of EC technology. Argil is developing next generation fast switching low cost electrochromic film that can be laminated between glass for use in automotive, architectural and wearable applications.

TBA
Stage 1

Lunch
12:40 - 13:45
Stage 3

Switchable Glazing
Stage 1

Transparent Solarcells
Stage 1

Recent Trends in Architectural Design of Transparent Facades
Stage 1

Contemporary architectural transparency (understood as the optical property of the material) is constantly being redefined and, over the last decade, new design trends have developed related to transparent façades in architecture. Those trends are the result of dynamic technological progress and of the advancement in the field of materials science. Transparency is no longer limited to specific functions(e.g. illumination of the interior), but has become a tool of formal expression itself. Apart from the standard understanding of transparency as the use of light-permeable materials in façade design one can find other innovative and creative interpretations. This paper defines and describes the most recent and distinct trends, including: (i) redundant transparency – which employs innovative techniques to enrich the spatial depth of the façade; (ii) veiled transparency – which postulates advanced obstruction of transparency; (iii) multilayered transparency – which creates complex and daylight-responsive detailing; (iv) regulated transparency – which uses modern technologies to turn facades into light-valves; (v) perceptual transparency – which achieves the impression of transparency without the use of light-permeable materials. The paper presents the result of a large case-study of one hundred buildings, located mostly in Europe and built between 2006-2016.

Coffee break
15:00 - 15:45
Stage 5

30 Years of Structural Design Innovations in Glass
Stage 1

An overview on my glass innovations due to challenging architectural design concepts in the last 30 years, since 1987 when the first glass structure model was conceived. The overview contains the structural thinking in structural systems with major use of glass panels like super slender tensile steel structures and cable structures up to glass fin supported structures and self-supporting glass panel structures. The connections between metal structures and glass panels is another chapter which derived from distributions of tensions in the glass panels mainly, in steel and stainless steel: produced as welded, pressed and cast steel. Insulated glass panels were provided with glued saucers to be connected to Quattro nodes (in spider shape). The connections to insulated (one or more spaces) and laminated glass panels were made in bolted and later in completely glued connections. The glass panels themselves were originally (and still are in majority) flat, but since 15 years ago cold twisting of glass panels was introduced as well as cold bending, which are regularly used nowadays. These basics in structural systems, steel connections, glass connections and bending / twisting are all illustrated in architectural applications.

Glass Imagined and Realized: Case Studies of the Aesthetic Qualities and Possibilities of Glass in Architectural Design
Stage 1

Architects are increasingly focused on the aesthetic qualities of glass as a cladding material while designing the façades of buildings, and are putting to use its wide range of appearances. At one limit, glass is invisible and immaterial, while at its other extreme it is fully visible and prized for its range of possibilities. Given the complex nature of buildings where performance and aesthetic goals often conflict, navigating the process from imagined concepts to realization requires consistent focus and expertise. Glass is Transparent: Lincoln Center Alice Tully Hall and The Juilliard School – Renovation to replace existing opaque facades with a series of new, transparent glass skins to connect the interior with the surrounding cityscape. Glass is Translucent and Light: Louis Vuitton Manhattan Headquarters – The materialization of the glass surface creates a dynamic public presence both during the day and the night. Glass is Reflective and Colorless: WTC Tower 4 – By pushing the reflective potential to its extreme, a 300m tower can dematerialize. Glass is Matte and Colorful: Barnard Diana Center – Using combinations of etched surface and colored frits, the contemporary student center blends into its context of traditional masonry buildings.

Glass Specification Challenges in London
Stage 1

The London property market has enjoyed a boom in construction since 2010 including many large developments of diverse typologies. There has been a broad trend over the past few years though has been towards a simplistic approach to glass specification and procurement. There are a few projects where more sophisticated latest glass products have been sought but more commonly glass is treated as a commodity. However there is also a significant population of projects that aim to achieve glass that achieves a high performance, looks good and has an attractive visual quality. Over the same time available glass products have multiplied and sourcing has become globalised from numerous sources in numerous geographies. As the that ultimately may disappoint developers owners, designers and specifiers. This paper will explore some of the characteristics and drivers of this trend but also discuss how the glass industry might play its part and respond to give the customer what he wants.

30.06.2017