Final Program

An important step in automotive laminated windshield, sidelite and sunroof production is the de-airing process prior to final autoclave processing. Today, manufacturers can choose between one of three available industrial solutions: vacuum ring, nipper roller and vacuum bag processes. The author describes each of these three processes, including their pros and cons and provides a […]

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Flat laminating process automation has been mainly focusing on automating assistive features on the laminating lines. These include, for example, glass movement, glass positioning and automatic foil trimming. These features enable an automated process that can work only in very limited conditions and do not meet the requirements of an average glass processor who delivers […]

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Riku Färm

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Laminated safety glass is one of the most important components of modern architecture. For producing laminated safety glass, two glass panes will be connected by use of a polymeric interlayer film. Currently, laminating films made of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) are used predominately, but there are some other materials on the market for special products, like […]

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Regardless of variance in international codes the design philosophy of flat glass elements acting as membrane is well researched and codified. However, the design of large format profiled laminated glass acting as a deep section under long term load has limited precedence nor design nor guidance. There are many papers and test studies completed on […]

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Many materials in modern civil engineering applications, such as coated carbon reinforcement grids or PVB-interlayers for laminated (safety) glass, are polymer-based. Polymeric materials are showing typical viscoelastic (time or strain-rate) and temperature dependent behaviour. Beside that, polymeric materials also may need to have constitutive equations which include hyperelasticity (nonlinear stress-strain behavior in a quasi-static condition) […]

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Interlayer modulus influences the stress laminated glass experiences under load. The determination of interlayer modulus data is complex, and until recently the design engineer would rely in most cases on interlayer modulus properties as determined on the foil, as published by the interlayer producers. Recently, standards or approvals have become available that provide guidance for […]

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Understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the polymeric interlayer plays a significant role in the design of laminated safety glass (LSG): In the intact state, the maximum glass stress and the maximum deformation are significantly influenced by the shear coupling through the interlayer. In the post-fractured state, the interlayer material behaviour influences the required residual […]

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Laminated structures are parallel (or redundant) systems, i.e., failure occurs when all the elements (glass plies) reach, in cascade, the ultimate limit state. Following the failure mode approach, the reliability analysis is consequent to the identification of all possible rupture modes of the glass plies, where each mode is identified by the sequence of collapse, […]

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This paper presents the results of an exploratory study into the metal-to-glass bond strength of a structural polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer (Saflex Structural DG by Eastman). The study consists of three laboratory test series, all executed at room temperature. In the first series, pull-out tests were performed on thin metal inserts that were laminated between […]

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Christian Louter

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Currently ASTM E1300-16 is only applicable to insulating glass units (IGUs) with four-sided edge support. For potential design or forensic use (e.g., where loss of structural silicone support has occurred), the authors used a modified ASTM analytical procedure to determine the load resistance of rectangular double IGUs supported along two parallel edges. The Analytical Procedure […]

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Engineers and designers are using glass in increasingly demanding applications such as stairs, floors, and bridges, large minimally supported facades and overhead glazing. The use of laminated glass in structural applications has become more recognized and preferred as safer choice to monolithic tempered or heat strengthen glass. Structural interlayers are stiff interlayers that increase the […]

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Jennifer Schneider

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